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Full text of "Housing, 1973"

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Alachua 
50 
1973 
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Housing, 1973 



COUNCIL MEMBERSHIP 
1973 

OFFICERS 

Jack R. Durrance, Chairman 

Ralph W. Kluge, Vice-chairman 

Clyde H. Bell, Sr. , Secretary-Treasurer 

ALACHUA COUNTY 

Jack Durrance Ralph Kluge 

CITY OF ALACHUA 

Robert H. Cato George Duk'3 

CITY OF GAINESVILLE 

Clayton C. Curtis Richard T. Jones 

Samuel N. Holloway 

CITY OF HAWTHORNE 

Clyde H. Bell, Sr. Carnell Henderson 

CITY OF HIGH SPRINGS 

E. G. Cann William E. Wright 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS 

North Central Florida Malcom Randall 

Health Planning Council 

Governor's Council on Henry Lovern 

Criminal Justice - Region II 

Alachua County Roy Miller 

Harlan Hanson 

City of Gainesville N. J. Bowman 

G. A. Hardin 




COUNCIL STAFF 

1973 

Charles F. Justice Executive Director 

Philip J. Hughey Assistant Director 

Alan L. Csontos Environmental Planner 

Roy E. Brewer Regional Planner 
Jan E. McGee Health Planning Coordinator 

Margaret E. Maxwell Executive Secretary 

Tommie Mae George Secretarv II 

Ruby Marshall Bookkeeper 

Russ Brami Graphics Coordinator 

Charles Peterson Planning Technician 

Trevor D, Splane Plannina Technician 

Robert L. Stevens Planning Intern 



HOUSING, 1973 



^' 






The preparation of this report was 
financed in part through a comprehen- 
sive planning grant from the Depart- 
ment of Housing and Urban Development. 



July 1973 



North Central Florida Regional Planning Council 
Five Southwest Second Place 
Gainesville, Florida 32601 



TITLE: 
AUTHOR : 

SUBJECT : 

DATE: 



Housing, 1973 

North Central Florida Regional Planning 
Council 

Projections of Housing Needs' and Site 
Location Criteria for Alachua County, Florida 

July 1973 



LOCAL PLANNING 
AGENCY : 



SOURCES OF COPIES 



HUD PROJECT NO . : 
SERIES NO. : 
NO. OF PAGES: 
ABSTRACT : 



North Central Florida Regional Planning 
Council 

Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and 
Technical Information 
Washington, D.C. 

North Central Florida Regional Planning 

Council 

Five Southwest Second Place 

Gainesville, Florida 32601 

HUD Regional Library 

Region IV 

Room 645 

Peachtree Seventh Building 

Atlanta, Georgia 30323 

CPA-04-30-1008 
NCFRPC 7 3 004 
124 

This study identifies and briefly analyzes 
socio-economic and housing trends for Alachua 
County, identifying such variables as family 
income, population growth, population per 
household, housing by type and tenure and 
housing conditions. Projections are made 
of housing needs, by type and tenure, for 
Alachua County and the municipalities therein, 
as well as the cost of housing and the ability 
of the potential consumer to pay for housing. 
An environmental discussion is included regarding 
site location criteria, covering such topics as 
the physically limiting restraints placed on 
the degree and location of subdivision develop- 
ments by topography, climate, ecology, soils, 
drainage and water and sewer utilities. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Abstract i 

Table of Contents ii 

List of Tables ^ 

List of Illustrations vii 

Introduction & Summary 1 

Scope 5 

Definitions 7 

Housing Needs 

Socio-Economic Analysis 10 

Population Change 10 

Age and Sex 12 

Race 14 

Spatial Distribution 15 

Student Enrollment 18 

Income 19 

Percent of Income Going to Rent 22 

Overcrowding 24 

Housing Profiles 27 

Vacancy Rates 31 

Owner Occupied Housing 33 

Renter Occupied Housing 36 

Mobile Homes 38 

Housing Projections 48 

Housing Needs 48 

Methodology 48 



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Gainesville Urban Area 48 

The Smaller Municipalities 50 

The Unincorporated Areas 5 8 

Structural Conditions ', 61 

Net New Housing Needs 62 

Consumer Capabilities 62 

Minorities ^9 

Housing Costs 59 

Low Income, Subsidized and Public Housing 73 

Housing Location Criteria 

Site Planning Criteria 75 

General 75 

Basic Need for Site Planning 76 

Sources of Information 77 

Topography 8 

Limiting Effects of Topography 8 

Slope Use Zoning 81 

Climate 84 

General 8 4 

Influence of Climate on Urban Structure 8 5 

Geology 90 

General 9 

Sources of Subsurface Information 9 

Site Investigation Methods 91 

Local Planning Considerations 93 



111 



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Soils 94 

Definition 94 

Influence of Soils on Development 95 

Soil Characteristics .- 95 

Effects of Soil Structure On Site Locations 98 

Soil Surveys 9 9 

Drainage 102 

General 103 

The Storm Drainage System 103 

Drainage Planning Considerations 104 

Water and Sewer Utilities 108 

General 108 

Water Supply 108 

Influence of Water Supply on Development 108 

Alternate Water Systems 109 

The Water Supply System 110 

Water Supply Planning Considerations Ill 

Sanitary Sewer Systems , . _ 

Influence of Sanitary Sewerage 

Systems on Development 113 

The Sanitary Sewage Collection System 114 

Alternate Sanitary Sewerage Collection Systems . 115 

Planning Considerations for Domestic Wastewater 

Disposal 116 

APPENDIX A - Methodology for Projecting Housing Needs 120 

APPENDIX B - Methodology for Projecting Costs of New 

Housing 121 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 12 2 



IV 



LIST OF TABLES 



Page 

1. Population Growth, 1950-1970, Alachua County and- the 

State of Florida < 10 

2. Components of Population Change, The State of Florida and 
Alachua County 11 

3. Non-White Population, Alachua County, 1950-1970 14 

4. Net Migration of Non-Whites, Alachua County, 1950-1970.... 15 

5. Urban-Rural Breakdown, U.S.A., Florida and Alachua 

County, 1960-1970 16 

6. Comparison of Gainesville Urban Area and Alachua County 
Population, 1950-1970 17 

7. Population Change, Incorporated Areas of Alachua County, 
1950-1970 18 

8. Incomes in 1969 of Families and Unrelated Individuals .... 20 

9. Income Below Poverty Level, Alachua County, Gainesville 

and Balance of County, 1969 22 

10. Gross Rent as a Percentage of Income, By Income, 1970, 
Alachua County 23 

11. Persons Per Room, Alachua County, 1970 25 

12. Persons Per Household, Florida, Alachua County, and selec- 
ted Municipalities , 1950-1970 26 

13. Housing Profile, Alachua County, 1950-1970 28 

14. Trend of Population and Household Growth, Gainesville, 
Florida, Housing Market Area , 1960-1970 30 

15. Vacancy Rates in Apartments, Gainesville Urban Area, 
1970-1973 32 

16. Owner Occupied Housing, Alachua County, Gainesville and 
Balance of County, 1970 34 

17. Price Range of Houses on Market but Not Yet Sold, April 

1973 34 

18. Renter Occupied Housing, Alachua County, Gainesville and 
Balance of County, 1970 37 

19. Housing Profile, Gainesville Urban Area, 1960, 1967, 

1970 (est) 39 



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Page 

20. Housing Profile, Alachua, 1960, 1970 40 

21. Housing Profile, Archer, 1970 41 

22. Housing Profile, Hawthorne, 1960,1970 42 

23. Housing Profile, High Springs, 1960,1970 43 

24. Housing Profile, Micanopy, 1970 44 

25. Housing Profile, Newberry, 1960,1970 45 

26. Housing Profile, Waldo, 1970 46 

27. Anticipated Housing Needs, Gainesville Urban Area, 

1973, 1975, 1980, 1985 49 

28. Anticipated Housing Needs, Alachua, 1973, 1975, 1980, 

1985 51 

29. Anticipated Housing Needs, Archer, 1973, 1975, 1980, 1985. 52 

30. Anticipated Housing Needs, Hawthorne, 1973, 1975, 1980, 

1985 53 

31. Anticipated Housing Needs, High Springs, 1973, 1975, 

1980, 1985 54 

32. Anticipated Housing Needs, Micanopy, 1973, 1975, 1980, 

1985 55 

33. Anticipated Housing Needs, Newberry, 1973, 1975, 1980, 

1985 56 

34. Anticipated Housing Needs, Waldo, 1973, 1975, 1980, 1985 . 57 

35. Housing Types, Unincorporated Areas of Alachua County, 
1971-72 59 

36. Anticipated Total Housing Needs, Alachua County, 197 3, 

1975, 1980, 1985 59 

37. Units Rating Rehabilitation and Clearance, Alachua 

County and Selected Municipalities 60 

38. Net New Housing Needs, Alachua County and Selected 
Municipalities, 1973, 1975, 1980, 1985 63 

39. Percent Distribution of Family Income, Alachua County, 

1970, 1973, 1975, 1980, 1985 65 

40. Estimated Family Income by Deciles, Alachua County, 1970, 
1973, 1975, 1980, 1985 66 



VI 



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Page 

41. Consumer Housing Purchasing Power; Alachua County, Per- 
cent Distribution of Families by Race and Housing Value; 

1973, 1975, 1980, 1985 67 

42. Consumer Housing Purchasing Power, Alachua County, Per- 
cent Distribution of Families by Race and Monthly Payment; 
1973, 1975, 1980, 1985 68 

43. Estimated Black Family Income, by Deciles, Alachua 

County, 1969, 1973, 1975, 1980, 1985 70 

44. Percent Distribution of Black Family Income, Alachua 

County, 1969, 1973, 1975, 1980, 1985 71 

45. Estimated Costs of New Single-family home, Alachua 

County, 1973, 1975, 1980, 1985 73 

46. Heat Absorption Characteristics of Selected Ground 

Surfaces 87 



LIST OF FIGURES 



1. Age-Sex Distribution, Alachua County, 1960, 1960, 1970... 13 

2. Housing Needs and Housing Construction Rates, Alachua 

County; 1973-1985 60 

3. Housing Costs Versus Housing Purchasing Power, Alachua 
County, by Race, 1973-1985 74 

4 . Soil Survey Interpretations 101 



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Introduction & Summary 



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This housing study covers several aspects of determining 
future housing needs and some environmental criteria to be 
considered in housing location. Beginning with a brief socio- 
economic analysis of Alachua County, the study proceeds to 
identify past and existing housing trends and conditions. The 
cost of new housing construction and the capabilities of 
the consumer to pay for housing are projected through 1985, as 
are the housing needs, by type and tenure. 

Following the discussion of future housing needs, a section 
is devoted to identifying the physical constraints on subdivision 
development. Housing location criteria, based on a number of 
physical limitations, are discussed. Also considered are the 
constraints which water and sewer utilities place on the degree 
and location of residential development. 

As the population increases and the needs and demands for 
housing become greater, planning will play a significant role 
in assuring that these needs will be met. Studies such as this 
will provide a valuable reference through which new housing 
construction can be compared with anticipated needs. The 
environmental considerations outlined in this study will also 
provide an important checklist to assist in assuring that land 
areas are properly developed. 

The major findings of this report are summarized below. 
A. Housing Trends and Needs 

1. The total number of housing units increased 53% 

from 1960 to 1970, from 21,933 units to 33,538 units. 

2. Mobile home units increased 204% from 1960 to 1970, 

from 672 units to 2,046 units. 

3. Multi-family units increased 147% from 1960 to 1970, 

from 3,319 units to 8,203 units. 

4. The number of housing units having 1.01 or more persons 

per room (a measure of over-crowding) declined from 
2,796 units in 1960 to 2,447 units in 1970, a decrease 
of 12.5%. 



5. The typical residential housing unit, defined as 
having 3 bedrooms, approximately 1,200 square feet of 
living space, and on a standard 100' by 100' lot, 
cost approximately $25,000 in 1973. 

6. In 1970, 15.3% of all families in Alachua County had 
incomes below the poverty level established by the 
Federal Interagency Committee. Furthermore, 22.4% 
of all households were below the poverty threshold. 

7. It is estimated that in 1973 51.75% of the families in 
Alachua County cannot afford new housing costing greater 
than $24,000. The corresponding figure for Black 
families is 81.34%. Furthermore, it is estimated that 
31.75% of the families in the county cannot afford 
housing costing greater than $16,000. For Black families 
the figure is 62.00%. 

8. It is estimated that approximately 16.25% of all 
families and 39.34% of Black families in Alachua County 
can not afford monthly housing payments of greater than 
$105 in 1973. 12.0% of all families and 31.34% of 
Black families cannot afford monthly housing payments 
of $85. 

9. Revised population estimates place Alachua County's 
population at 127,872 in 1975, 145,111 in 1980, and 
165,432 in 1985. 

10. The total number of households in Alachua County is 
projected to be 38,583 in 1975, 44,810 in 1980, and 
51,607 in 1985. 

11. The total number of housing units needed for Alachua 
County is projected to be 41,924 in 1975, 48,689 in 
1980, and 56,074 in 1985.5. 

12. The cost of a typical residential unit in Alachua County 
is expected to increase 72% betweem 1973 and 1985. 

13. The median family income in Alachua County is estim^ated 
to increase 28% between 1973 and 1985, from an estimated 
$11,638 in 1973 to an estimated $14,844 in 1985. Median 
Black family income is estimated to increase by the same 
percent from an estimated $6,262 in 1973 to an estimated 
$7,986 in 1985. 

14. It is projected that by 1985, 11.25% of all families and 
30.00 % of all Black families in Alachua County will be 
unable to afford housing costing greater than $10,000. 
38.75% of all families and 69.0% of Black families will 
be unable to afford housing above $24,000. 



15. It is projected that by 1985 11.25% of all families and 
30.00% of all Black families will be unable to afford 
monthly housing payments exceeding $105, at maximum. 
8.50% of all families and 24.00% of all Black families 
will be unable to sustain a monthly housing payment ex- 
ceeding $85, at maximum, without some -type of housing 
assistance . 



B. Site Location Criteria 

The desirable features for location of a subdivision site 
should include as many of the following items, (realizing, 
of course, that it will probably not be possible to find 
one site that meets all of these criteria) : 

1. An adequate groundwater or surface water supply not 
subject to excessive pollution that can be developed 
into a satisfactory supply at an accessible and con- 
venient location on or near the site, if an adequate 
public water supply is not available. 

2. A permeable soil that will readily absorb rainwater 
and permit the disposal of sewage and other waste- 
water by conventional subsurface means is most desirable, 
if not essential, for the smaller establishment where 
public sewerage is not available. Such soil will 
contain relatively large amounts of sand and gravel, 
perhaps in combination with some silt, clay, broken stones, 
or loam. The groundwater table should not be closer 

than four feet of the ground surface at any time and there 
should be a porous earth cover of not less than four or 
five feet over impervious subsoil or rock. A suitable 
receiving stream or land area is needed if a sewage 
treatment plant is required. 

3. Land to be used for housing or other structures must 
be well above flood or high-water level. There should 
be no nearby swamps . 

4. Elevated, well-drained, dry land open to the air and 
sunshine part of the day, on gently sloping, partly 
wooded hillsides or ridges, should be available for 
housing and other buildings. The cleared land should 
have a firm, grass-covered base to prevent erosion 

and dust. A slope having a southern or eastern exposure 
protected from strong winds on the north and west is 
desired. 

5. The area of the property should be large enough to 
provide privacy, avoid crowding, accomodate a well- 
-rounded program of activities, and allow for future 



expansion. The property should be accessible by 
automobile and bus, and convenient to airports, super- 
-highways , railroads, if needed, and recreation facilities. 



6 . A satisfactory area should be available for bathing 
and swimming and other water sports at recreational 
sites. A clean lake, river, or stream or an arti- 
ficial swimming pool will suffice if adequately 
maintained . 

7. Noxious plants, poisionous reptiles, harmful insects, 
excessive dust, steep cliffs, old mine shafts or wells, 
dangerous rapids, dampness, and fog should be absent. 
All this is not usually possible to attain; however, the 
seriousness of such hazards should be considered. 

8. A public water supply, sewerage system, and solid 
waste disposal system, if available and accessible, 
would be extremely desirable. 

9. For residential development, electricity, gas, and 
telephone service; a sound zoning ordinance and a land 
use plan that provides for and protects compatible uses; 
fire protection; and modern building construction and 
houlsing codes vigorously enforced by competent people 
should all be assured. 

10. Air pollution, noise, and traffic problems from ad- 
joining areas should not interfere with the proposed use. 



I 



HOUSING NEEDS 



•Socio-economic Analysis 



•Housing Profiles 



Housing Projections 



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SCOPE 



Anv study attemptina to anticipate a community's future 
housing needs must begin v/ith an accurate assessment of the 
relationships between the community's existing social, economic 
and housing conditions. This assessment would consist of a socio- 
economic profile, composed of such data as presented in the 
following outline: 

I) Population 

A) Total 

B) By Race 

C) By Age 

D) By Sex 

II) Family Income Levels - Distributions 

A) Total 

B) By Race 

III) Housing, by Tenure (Owner-occupied, Renter-occupied, 
Vacant) 

A) Median Value (Owner-occupied) 

B) Median Rent (Renter-occupied) 
IV) Housing 

A) By Type (Single-family, Multi-family) 

B) By Quality (Sound, Deterioratina , Dilapidated) 
V) Housing 

A) By Type and Tenure 

B) By Race and Sub-area (Census tracts and/or 
enumeration districts) 

VI) Overcrowding (1.01 persons per room--Census Bureau) 

The above outline is certainly not all-inclusive, but serves 
to illustrate what data go into a socio-economic profile. Greater 
depth can be given to the profile, and conseauently , a better 
understanding of the dynamics of the community, if the data can 
be collected over a span of years, so that time comparisons can 



be made. Such data would aid in establishing trends upon v;hich 
projections could be based. However, trend data mav not be 
available, especially in smaller communities not ordinarily 
covered by the Census Bureau reports, and lim.itations of time, 
manpower, and money may not allow for the collection of trend 
data. In these situations, projections must be based upon 
available current year data and scholarly assumptions. 

Accordingly, this study will proceed in the followino 
manner : 

1) utilize census data and the Population and Economic 
Study (197 2, N.C.F.R.P.C.) to display and analyze the 
socio-economic profile of Alachua County, and of each 
municipality within the county, where data availability 
allows; 

2) employ census data, the Housing Conditions Study 
(1972, N.C.F.R.P.C.) and some survey data to review 

housing conditions (quantity and auality) and to relate 
to socio-economic conditions as determined by 1) 
above, identifying user groups; 

3) use data from existing studies to estimate the number 
of existina units which warrant clearance or rehab- 
ilitation by section of the county; 

4) assess past and present housing conditions and borrow 
the population projections from the Population and 
Economic Study to project gross housina needs, by type 
and tenure; 

5) use interview data to estimate future housing oro- 
duction by type, estimating cost of purchase or rent 
levels as well; 

6) use the data from 3) , 4) and 5) above to estimate unmet 
housing demand; and 

7) project income and, subsequently, demand for housing 
by user group and anticipated need for subsidized 
housing, at the county level. 



DEFINITIONS 

The following definitions will serve to clarify the terminology 
used in this study: 

Contract Rent is the montly dollar rent agreed upon or (for 
vacant units) the monthly dollar rent asked at the time of 
enumeration, regardless of any furnishings, utilities, or 
services that v/ere included. Respondents were to indicate 
monthly contract rent to the nearest dollar. (If rent was 
paid by the week or some other time period, respondents were 
to indicate the amount and the time period so that their 
monthly contract rent can be entered by census employees.) 

Gross Rent is calculated for renter-occupied units rented for 
cash rent (with the exclusions noted above for rent) . It 
represents the contract rent plus the average monthly cost 
of utilities (water, electricity, gas,) and fuels, to the 
extent that these are paid for by the renter (or paid for 
by a relative, welfare agency, or friend) in addition to 
the rent. Gross rent thus eliminates differentials which 
result from varying practices with respect to the inclus- 
ion of utilities and fuel in contract rent. 

Gross Rent as Percentage of Income is the yearly gross rent 
(monthly gross rent multiplied by 12) expressed as a per- 
centage of the total (gross) income in 1969 of the family 
or primary individual. 

Mean is the calculated, average value. 

Median is the calculated value which divides a distribution 
in half. 



Socio-Economic Profile is a series of tabulations of various 
social and economic characteristics of a community which 
give an indication of the social conditions existing within 
that community. These characteristics would include pop- 
ulation composition, income, occupations, employment, 
education, and others. Such data are usually available 
from the Census publications, local aaencies and research 
groups, and can also be collected bv field surveys. This 
data can be analyzed at the communitv level, at larqer levels, 
such as the county, region or state level, or at the smaller 
levels of sub-areas within a community. 

Value is the respondent's estimate of how much the property 
(house and lot) would sell for if it were for sale. 

A Sound Housing Structure is one which has no defects, or 
possibly slight defects which are repaired as a part of normal 
and adequate maintenance on a structure. Examples of such 
defects are lack of paint, slight damage to porch or steps, 
inadequate mortar between bricks or other masonry, small 
cracks in walls, broken gutters or downspouts. 

A Deteriorating Housing Structure is one that reauires more 
repair than would be provided in the course of regular 
maintenance. Housing in this category generally has one 
or more defects that must be corrected, if the structure 
is to continue to provide adeauate shelter. Examples of 
a deteriorating structure are open cracks in exterior 
members, rooted, loose or missing materials on the struc- 
ture, shakey or unsafe porch, broken or missing window- 
panes, all of which would render the structure no longer 
adequate shelter from the elements. Such defects are signs 
of neglect which lead to serious structural deterioration 
or damage, if not corrected. 



A Dilapidated Structure is one that does not provide 
adequate shelter and is a detriment to the health, safety 
or well-being of the occupants. Housing in this catecforv 
will have one or more critical defects of such magnitude 
that they require considerably repair or rebuilding. Some 
structures are now dilapidated because of inadequate original 
construction. These defects are either so critical or 
widespread that the structure should be extensively repaired, 
rebuilt, or demolished. 

A Housing Unit is a house, an apartment, a group of rooms, 
or a single room, occupied or intended for occupancy as 
separate living quarters. Separate livincr quarters are those 
in which the occupants do not live and eat with any other 
persons in the structure, and which quarters have either 
(1) direct access from the outside of the building or 
through a common hall, or (2) complete kitchen facilities 
for the exclusive use of the occupants. The occupants 
may be a single family, one person living alone, two or 
more families living together, or any group of related or 
non-related persons who share living arrangements (except 
in group quarters) . Both occupied and vacant housing units 
are included in the housing inventory, except that mobile 
homes, trailier, tents, etc., are included only if they 
are occupied. 

A Household consists of all the persons who occupy a housing 
unit. By definition, therefore, the count of occupied 
housing units is the same as the count of households. 

Persons Per Household is computed by dividina the peculation 
in housing units by the number of occupied housing units. 
Since by previous definition the count of occupied housing 
units is equivalent to the count of households, population 
per occupied housing unit is equivalent to persons per 
household. 



Socio-economic Analysis 



POPULATION CHANGE 

A review of several socio-economic variables for Alachua 
County from the 1950 Census to date, and a comparison of this 
data with similar data at the state level, reveal a number of 
significant trends which are pertinent to anticipatina future 
housing needs. The first of these trends to consider regards 
population growth, as depicted in Table 1. 

Table 1 
Population Growth 1950-1970 
Alachua County and the State of Florida 

%chanqe 
1950 1960 1970 1960-70 

Florida 2,771,305 4,951,560 6,789,443 37.1 

Alachua County 57,026 74,074 104,764 41.4 

While it is evident that Alachua County has experienced a 
fairly large and significant growth rate over the past 20 years, 
the county's growth rate does not parallel that of the state, with 
the possible exception of the 1960-1970 decade wnere the county's 
rate was actually higher. Several explanations for this dissim- 
ilarity of growth rates center on a comparison of growth patterns 
and of the components of population change, specifically natural 
increase and net migration. Natural increase is determined by 
subtracting the number of deaths from the number of live births; 
net migration is the number of people migrating into an area minus 
the number migrating out of the area. In the state, population 
change due to natural increase, has steadily declined since 1870, 
accounting for less than half of the state's growth in successive 
decades since 1920. Conversely, population grovvth due to migration 
has accounted for increasingly large proportions of total growth 



10 



since 1900, actually reaching approximately 60% during the 
1920-1930 decade, and attributing for close to 75% of total 
growth since 1950. 

Alachua County has not experienced a growth due to such 
high proportions of in-migration . To the contrary, as Table 2 
explains, natural increases accounted for almost 7 0% of the 
population growth as recently as in the 1950-1960 decade. Only 
in the last ten years has migration explained more than 50% 
of the population changes for the county. What may be more 
significant is not that migration accounted for 54% of change 
since 1960, but that the proportion of change attributable to 
migration has increased bv two thirds, from 32% to 54%. The 
proportion due to natural increase has concomitantly decreased 
by one-third, down from 67% to 45%. In the event that this 
trend should continue, it is important to identify the specific 
components of this migration into the county to determine what 

Table 2 

Components of Population Change 

The State of Florida and Alachua County 



1950-1960 



State 

Total Pop- 2,180,255 

ulation 

Change 



Change Due 
to Natural 
Increase 



564,255 
(25.9%) 



Change Due 1,616,000 
to Migra- 
tion 



(74.1%) 



County 
17,048 



11,532 
(67.6%) 

5,516 
(32.4%) 



1960-1970 
State County 
1,837,883 30,690 



511,883 13,972 

(27.9%) (45.5%) 

1,326,000 16,718 

(72.1%) (54.5%) 



Source: 1950, 1960 and 1970 Census Publications 



11 



type of people — types here referring to sex, age, race and 
occupation, family or non-f amily--are moving into the area. 
Once an understanding of the nature of change and migration is 
developed, it will be easier to anticipate the housing needs of 
this population. 

AGE AND SEX 

The initial impact of population growth due to migration is 
reflected in the age distribution within the county, as graph- 
ically illustrated in Figure 1. These sex-age profiles are desig- 
ned to show the relative distribution of aaes within a pooulation, 
stratified by sex. Following the profiles from 1950 to 1970 
suggests several items of significance. 

1) The proportion of the population 65 years and older 
has remained fairly constant since 1950, although, 
as the total county population increased, so too did 
this age group increase in absolute numbers . 

2) While the proportion of the population age 65 and older 
has remained fairly constant, within that age group, women 
are more numerous than men. This reflects a national trend, 
as a Census Bureau profile of people at these ages shows, 
indicating that at the national level in 1970 there were 
722 men for every 1,000 women, and the gap is expected to 
widen further in the future. 

3) The percent of the population under the age of five has 
declined since 1960 from 11.4% to 8.4% in 1970. 

4) During the same time period, the age group 15-24 has 
increased from 23.4% to 28.9% of the population. 

While the state has experienced a significant increase in the 
size of the population ages 65 and older, the proportion of the 
county's population falling in this age qroup has remained relative- 
ly constant since at least 1950, at aporoximatelv 6.0%. If the state 
is generally considered an attractive place to retire, Alachua Countv 
apparently is not the most preferred area within the state. It seems 
reasonable to assume that any change in the size of the population 



12 



FIGURE 1 



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within this age group will parallel a change in the total 
county population. It can be further assumed that, within this 
age group, women will continue to outnumber men, with the numer- 
ical gap widening in the future. 



RACE 



Having briefly examined population change at the gross level, 
some of the components of this change should be considered at a 
more specific level. Examining the figures in Table 3, it 
becomes apparent that, although non-whites have increased in terms 
of absolute numbers in the county, the proportion of the non-white 
population is steadily declining. 





Table 3 






Non-White Population 






Alachua County 






1950-1970 






Non-White 


Percent of Total 


Year 


Population 


County Population 


1950 


16,551 


29.0 


1960 


19,492 


26.5 


1970 


21,563 


20.6 



The further detail given in Table 4 points out that non-whites 
are actually migrating out of the area, and have been doing so 
since the 1950-60 decade. This is perhaps reflective of a nation- 
al trend where non-whites, particularly young non-whites at the 
verge of beginning to establish their households, migrate out of 
the predominatelv rural south to the larger urban areas in other 
regions offering greater economic opportunities. 



14 



Table 4 
Net Migration of Non-Whites 
Alachua County 
1950-1970 

1950 1960 1970 

Population 16,551 19,492 21,563 

Natural Increase 3,758 3,775 

Expected Popula- 20,309 23,267 

tion Due to Nat- 
ural Increase 

Net Migration -817 -1,704 

The trend of the non-white population declining as a 
proportion of the total population is expected to continue, and 
it is predicted that by 1985 only 14.5% of the population will 
be non-white. 

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION 



Closely related to the sex-age-race component is the 
spatial distribution of the population within the county. What 
is sought here is to identify trends in patterns of settlement 
and to attempt to establish some causal relationships between 
these patterns and other socio-economic variables. Through such 
an exercise, it should be easier to anticipate the continuation 
or cessation of trends and, consequently, be in a better position 
to anticipate future housing needs and demands. At this point, 
the concern is not for where within a municipality people locate, 
but rather in which municipality people tend to congregate. 
Accordingly, it is interesting to see that Alachua County, similar 
to the state and the nation, has undergone a shift in population 
from the rural areas into the urban areas, specifically the 
Gainesville Urban Area. 



15 



Table 5 
Urban-Rural Breakdown 
U.S.A., Florida and Alachua County 
1960-1970 



Year 


U.S.A. 
Percent 




Urban 




Rural 


1950 


59.6 




40.4 


1960 


69.9 




30.1 


1970 


73.5 




26.5 


Source: 


Census 


Publicat, 



Florida 


Alac 


hua 


County- 


Percent 




Percent 


Urban 


Rural 


Urban 




Rural 


65.5 


34.5 


47.1 




52.9 


73.9 


26.1 


49.6 




50.4 


80.5 


19.5 


68.8 




31.2 



It is significant to point out that the rate of population 
shift into the urban areas is higher in Alachua County than 
for either the state or the nation as a whole. In the 1950 and 
1960 Census tabulations, Alachua County had only one area 
classified as an urban area, Gainesville. In 1970, High Springs 
was added to this classification, as were certain fringe areas of 
Gainesville. The role of the Gainesville Urban Area in this 
urban shift is portrayed in Table 6, where data comparing the 
total county population growth with concurrent growth in the 
Gainesville Urban Area is provided. As can be seen, the 
Gainesville Urban Area accounted for approximately 96% of the 
total county growth during the 1960-1970 decade, which, while 
certainly a high proportion, is actually lower than the figure 
for the 1950-60 decade. The proportion of the population living 
in the Gainesville Urban Area has steadily increased since 1950 
to the present level of approximately 8 0%. 



16 



Table 6 

Comparison of Gainesville Urban Area (GUA) 
and Alachua County Population 
1950-1970 

1950 1960 1970 

Alachua County Population 57,026 74,074 104,764 

Ten Year Increase 18,419 17,048 30,690 

Percent Increase 47.7 29.9 41.4 

GUA Population 36,360 53,111 82,411 

Increase 15,729 16,751 29,300 

Percent Increase 76.2 46.1 55.2 



GUA increase as a 85.4 98.2 95.5 

Percent of County Increase 

GUA Population as a 63.8 71.7 78.7 

Percent of County Population 

Source: Gainesville Department of Community Development, 
Population Study , 1968. 

Census Publications, 1950, 1960, 1970. 



This is not to say that the Gainesville Urban Area is the 
only area to experience population increases; rather, the 
GUA accounts for more of the total county increase than all 
of the remainder of the countv summed together. A look at 
Table 7 suggests that several of the smaller municipalities 
experienced significant growth. La Crosse underwent a 
phenomenal growth rate of 121%. 



17 



Table 7 

Population Change 

Selected Incorporated Areas of Alachua County 

1950-1970 



Incorporated 
Areas 


1 


1950 
,116 


1960 
1,974 


Percent 

Change 

1950-60 

76.8% 


1970 
2,252 


Percent 

Change 

1960-70 


Alachua 


14.1% 


High Springs 


2 


,088 


2,329 


11.5 


2,787 


19.7 


La Crosse 




146 


165 


13.0 


365 


121.2 


Waldo 




647 


735 


13.6 


800 


8.8 


Newberry 




873 


1,105 


31.7 


1,247 


12.9 


Archer 




586 


707 


20.7 


898 


27.0 


Micanopy 




612 


658 


7.5 


759 


15.4 


Hawthorne 


1 


,058 


1,167 


10.3 


1,126 


-3.5 



STUDENT ENR0LLr4ENT 

The shift to Gainesville may be partially explained by the 
increase in enrollment at the University of Florida. As noted 
earlier, in-migration has accounted for greater than half of 
the population increase in the county since 1960. Furthermore, 
almost 96% of the county's population increase is centered in 
the Gainesville Urban Area. It might be sugcrested that student 
enrollment would be a contributing factor, particularlv in recent 
years, during which time much emphasis was beina placed on higher 
educational attainment and advanced decrees. 

In fact, enrollment at the University of Florida has 
been shown to be a significant factor in population increase, 
accounting for approximately 55% of net migration into the 
county for both the 1950-60 and the 1960-70 decades. Revised 



18 



enrollment estimates project student population at the 
University of Florida to increase from a current 23,500 to 
approximately 27,000 by 1982, an increase of 15%. (Unofficial 
enrollment projections were provided by the Plannincf and Analysis 
Division, University of Florida; May 17, 1973.) This increase 
will be reflected heavier in the graduate school than at the 
undergraduate levels, as graduate enrollment is expected to 
increase almost 40%, while freshman and sophmore enrollment is 
projected to rise bv onlv 8%. Undergraduates v^ill still constitute 
the major portion of the student poDulation (74% bv 1982) , 
although graduate student enrollment will substantiallv rise 

(to represent 26% by 1982) . The potential effect of students upon 
the housing market becomes apparent when it is considered that 
the University of Florida attempts to provide housinq for 
approximately 50% to 55% of the total enrollment in dormitories 

(mostly freshmen and sophomores , fraternities and sororities and 
married housing.) Therefore, the type of housing sought by 
students in the housing markets may vary somewhat with the 
changing nature of the student body, although to speculate 
exactly what the effect will be is purely conjecture. Furthermore, 
associated with an increase in student enrollment is of course 
an increase in the number of faculty and staff, as well as service 
and support personnel. 

INCOME 

Any socio-economic analvsis oriented towards establishina 
a data base for a housing studv must include data regardina 
family income and the distributions of income levels. Ideally, 
a micro-analysis of an area by census divisions (enumeration 
districts or census tracts) would be performed, establishing 
correlations between the type and quality of housing and a 
number of socio-economic variables. For this report, an 



19 



Income in 196 9 
Alachua County, 



Table 8 
of Families and Unrelated Individuals 
City of Gainesville and Balance of County 



Total 



Gainesville 



Balance 



All Families 

Less than $1,000 

$1,000-$1,999 

$2,000-$2,999 

$3,000-$3,999 

$4,000-$4,999 

$5,000-$5,999 

$6,000-$6,999 

$7,000-$7,999 

$8,000-$8,999 

$9,000-$9,999 

$10,000-$11,999 

$12,000-$14,999 

$15,000-$24,999 

$25,000-$49,999 

$50,000 or more 

Median Income 
Mean Income 

<$ 3,000 
>$10,000 



23,871 
782 
1,138 
1,252 
1,587 
1,736 
1,684 
1,538 
1,690 
1,607 
1,486 
2,436 
2,734 
3,112 
934 
155 



3.3 

4.8 

5.2 

6.7 

7.3 

7.1 

6.4 

7.1 

6.7 

6.2 

10.2 

11.5 

13.0 

3.9 

.71 



$ 8,329 
$10,155 

3,172 13.3 
(31.4) 

9,371 39.3 
(11.2) 



13,689 

422 

572 

697 

878 

987 

922 

835 

954 

882 

787 

1,426 

1,622 

1,954 

655 

86 



3.1 

4.2 

5.1 

6.4 

7.2 

6.7 

6.1 

7.0 

6.4 

5.8 

10.4 

11.9 

14.3 

4.9 

.6- 



$ 8,655 
$10,443 



1,691 
5,753 



12.4 
42.0 



10,182 

360 

566 

555 

709 

749 

762 

703 

736 

725 

699 

1,010 

1,112 

1,158 

269 

69 



3.5 
5.6 
5.5 



6.9 

7.2 

7.1 

6.9 

9.9 

10.9 

11.4 

2.6 

.71 



$7,933 

$9,768 

1,481 14.6 
3,618 35.5 



Ipigures are rounded, therefore columns may not total 100.0% 
^Corresponding 1959 figures. 
Source: Census Publications PHC (l)-77, p. 10. 



20 



area-wide view of family income data, the median value of owner- 
occupied houses, and the median gross rent paid by renters will 
be obtained by referring to the 1970 Census. The income data 
will provide an idea of what a family can afford to pay, either to 
buy or rent, using Federally-established guidelines, while the 
median value and median rent data will show what people are 
actually paying. Using as a guideline the HUD proposal that no 
family should have to devote more than 25% of its income to 
housing, one other variable provided by the Census Bureau will 
be considered--the percentage of family income qoing to rent, 
stratified by income livels. This procedure will identify the 
"housing poor," that is, those who must pay more than one-fourth 
of their income to rent, thereby leaving little disposable income 
for other necessities, such as food and clothing. 

The 1969 distribution of income levels for Alachua Countv, 
Gainesville, and the balance of the county is given in Table 
8. Trend data would, in this case, be inaccurate and mis- 
leading unless all dollar figures were standardized to measure 
against a common value. One measure that may give some compar- 
ability is to identify the number of families in 1959 and 1969, 
that were making less than or equal to $3,000, and equal to or 
greater than $10,000. These two figures are generally accepted 
as indicators of poor and affluent families. In 1969, the 
Census Bureau defined "the poverty threshold for a non-farm 
family of four" as $3,743. (Census, PHC (l)-77, App. 8-9.) 
Although close to 40% of the county's families are making 
$10,000 or more, there is, nevertheless, a sizable proportion 
of the population which is making $3,000 or less. If we include 
all families whose incomes are below poverty level, the per- 
centages increase. 



21 



Table 9 
Income Below Poverty Level 
Alachua County, City of Gainesville and Balance of County 

Total % Gainesville % Balance 



Families 3,660 15.3 1,917 14.0 1,743 17.1 

Mean Family $1,982 $1,942 $2,025 

Income 

Source: Census, PHC (l)-77 p. 10. 

PERCENT OF INCOME GOING TO RENT 

One further economic variable pertinent to housing is the 
percent of income going to rent. Using 1970 Census data, it is 
possible to determine what percent of income is going to rent, 
and how many households are devoting greater than 25% of their 
income to rent. In this situation, rent refers to grocs rent, 
or the contract rent plus an estimate of monthly utilities. 
Referring to the definitions at the beginning of the report, 
it should be noted that gross rent, as a percentage of income, 
is computed on the basis of total vearly income of the family 
or primary individual. It should be further noted that per- 
centages were computed separately for each unit and rounded to 
the nearest whole number. The "not computed" category pertains 
to those units for which no cash is paid, or in which cases the 
occupants claimed no income or a net loss. 

The table points out that nearly half of all households 
occupying renter units in the county are paying 25% or more of 
their income for rent. It is interesting to note that the median 
percent of income going to rent is higher for Gainesville than for 
the county as a whole, or the balance of the county, in all income 
categories shown, excepting the lower income group in which all 



22 



Table 10 
Gross Rent as a Percentage of Income, By Income 

1970 
Alachua County 





Total 


^ 


Gainesville % 


Balance 


% 


Specified Renter Units 


11,776 




9,465 




2,311 




Income less than $15,000 


6,502 




5,283 




1,219 




Less than 20% 


570 


8.8 


421 


8.0 


149 


12.2 


20-24 


427 


6.6 


339 


6.4 


88 


7.2 


25-34 


844 


13.0 


704 


13.3 


140 


11.5 


35 


4,019 


61.8 


3,460 


65.5 


559 


45.9 


Not Computed 


642 


9.9 


359 


6.8 


283 


23.2 


Median 




35.0+ 




35.0+ 




35.0+ 


$5,000-$9,999 


3,508 




2,757 




751 




Less than 20% 


1,710 


48.8 


1,261 


47.7 


449 


59.8 


20-24 


810. 


23.1 


696 


25.2 


114 


15.2 


25-34 


645 


18.4 


565 


20.5 


80 


10.7 


35 


182 


5.2 


164 


6.0 


18 


2.4 


Not Computed 


161 


4.6 


71 


2.6 


90 


12.0 


Median 




19.8 




20.6 




17.1 


$10,000-$14,999 


1,255 




984 




271 




25% or More 


41 




41 




- 




Not Computed 


44 




- 




44 




Median 




15.1 




15.9 




12.5 


$15,000 or More 


511 




441 




70 




25% or More 


- 




- 




- 




Not Computed 


5 




5 




- 




Median 




11.7 




12.0 




10.0 



Total, All Income Ranges, Rent 25% of Income 

Total % Gainesville % Balance 



Source: 



5,731 48.7 
Census, PHC (l)-77, H-4 . 



4 ,934 



52.1 



797 



34.5 



23 



areas listed show an unspecified median greater than 35%. The 
figures also show that greater than half of the Gainesville 
households in renter occupied units are paying more than 25% of 
their income in rent. 

OVERCROWDING 

There remain two socio-economic variables to consider in 
relation to housing: persons per room; and persons per house- 
hold. As a measuring of housing adequacy, it is generally 
accepted practice to consider the ratio of persons to the number 
of rooms, with a ratio of one person per room being the national 
standard for overcrowding. (U.S. House Document No. 9 2-319, p. 37.) 
The Census Bureau provides a measure of nersons per room, derived 
by dividing the number of persons in each unit (which mav include 
occupants that are not related to the head of the household, such 
as roomers, boarders, wards, resident employees and others) by 
the number of rooms in that housing unit. "Rooms" here refers 
to whole rooms used for living purposes, and does not include 
bathrooms, storage rooms, halls, basements, unfinished attics, 
or the like. The figures listed in Table 11, therefore, represent 
the number of housing units with the specified ratio of persons 
per room. 

Judging from the table, overcrowding, here defined as being 
more than 1.00 persons per room, exists for between 6.9% and 9.6% 
of the population on the average, depending upon the geographic 
location within the county. The higher proportion of defined 
overcrowding existing outside of Gainesville may in part be a 
function of the number of persons per household in this predom- 
inately rural area. 



24 



Table 11 
Persons Per Room 
Alachua County-1970 

Total % Gainesville % Balance % 

All Occupied 

Housing Units 31,115 18,777 12,338 

1.00 or Less 

Persons per 28,511 91.6 17,492 93.2 11,019 89.3 
Room 

1.01 to 1.50 1,813 5.8 916 4.9 897 7.3 
1.51 or More 791 2.5 369 2.0 422 2.3 

Note: Percentages represent rounded computations, therefore, 
columns may not add up to exactly 100.0%. 

Source: Census PHC (l)-77, H-1. 

Referring again to the definitions at the beginning of the 
study, one should note that a household does not necessarily 
constitute a number of related individuals. Indeed, since 
by definition "the count of occupied housing units is the same 
as the count of households," one or more unrelated individuals 
(such as students) occupying one housing unit would classify 
as one household. Thus, saying that the average household size 
is, 3.6, for example, should not be construed to mean that the 
average family size is 3.6; rather, the average occupancy rate 
for housing units in the defined area is 3.6 persons. No 
conclusions should be drawn regarding housing types without 
first considering the nature of the area to which the figures 
apply (student-non student, farm-non farm, urban-rural), and 
stating assumptions accordingly. With this in mind, consider 
the data in Table 12, which depicts the sizes of households in 
several municipalities v/ithin the county and compares them to 
county-wide and state figures. 



25 



Florida 


3.25 


Alachua 


3.41 


County 




Gainesville 




Alachua 


* 


Hawthorne 


* 


High Springs 


* 


Newberry 


* 



Table 12 
Persons Per Household 
Florida, Alachua County and Selected Municipalities 

1950 1960 1970 

3.11 2.90 

3.40 3.06 

2.94 
3.75 3.60 

3.58 3.30 

3.22 3.20 

3.23 3.21 

* Data not available for these municipalities for 1950. 
Source: 1960 and 1970 Census of Housing 

There appears to be a trend in the state and within 
Alachua County towards smaller households, although this phenom- 
ena is least noticeable in High Springs and Newberry. The de- 
cline in the size of households is expected to continue in 
Alachua County, such that by 1985 household size is forecasted 
to be approximately 2.79 persons. (N.C .F.R.P .C . , Population 
and Economic Study , p. 146.) Projections of household size for 
the Gainesville Urban Area and the smaller municipalities within 
the county will be considered later in this report. 



26 



Housing Profiles 



Thus far, a few socio-economic variables oertinent to 
identifying housing needs have been briefly reviewed. The 
second task is to construct a housing profile of the county 
and of each municipalitv therein, and to follow up v/ith an 
examination of trends in housing construction. The profiles 
will identify three major characteristics of housinc for each 
study area, and will provide trend data when available. 
The three major types are: 

1) housing type- single-family, multi-f amilv, 

mobile home 

2) housing tenure- owner-occupied, renter-occupied, 

vacant 

3) housing conditions- sound, deteriorating, 

dilapidated (refer to def- 
initions at the beginnincf 
of the study) . 

The profiles will also supply some supplemental data, 
such as the median value of owner-occupied housing, the 
median contract rent for renter-occupied housing, and 
persons per unit. In addition, some data concernina housing 
owned, rented, or occupied by Blacks will be supplied. These 
profiles v;ill be specific only to the study areas, and not 
to any sub-areas therein. 

Looking first at the countv as a whole, the first item 
to note is that total housing production from 1960 to 1970 increased 
the housing supply 53% from 22,000 to 33,500 housing units. 
Approximately 46% of this production was single-family construc- 
tion (5,286 units), and 42% was multi-family construction (4,882). 
The remaining 12% is accounted for by mobile homes, increasing 
from 672 to 2,046 units, an increase of 204% since 1960. 



27 



Table 13 
Alachua County - Housing Profile 
1950, 1960, 1970 



^' 



,00 -V 





Total 


'6 


Total 


'6 


% Chang< 

1950 

-1960 


Total 


% 


% Change 

1960 

-1970 


Total 
Population 


57,026 




74,074 






104,764 






Total Hous- 
ing Units 


15,988 




21,933 




37.12% 


33,538 




52.1% 


Total 
Occupied 


14,811 


92.6 


19,888 


90.7 


34.3 


31,115 


92.8 


56.5 


Owner 
Occupied 


7,827 


52.9 


12,312 


61.9 


57.3 


18,911 


60.8 


53.6 


Renter 
Occupied 


6,984 


47.2 


7,576 


38.1 


8.5 


12,204 


39.2 


61.1 


Vacant 


1,177 


7.4 


2,045 


9.3 


73.7 


2,432 


7.2 


18.9 


Median 
Value $ 






10,600 






14,000 




32.1 


Median Con- 
tract Rent $ 






44 






89 




102.3 


Single Family 


12,251 


76.6 


17,987 


82.0 


46.8 


23,273 


69.39 


29.4 


Multi-Family 


3,379 


21.1 


3,319 


15.1 


- 1.8 


8,201 


24.45 


147.1 


Mobile Home 


358 


2.2 


672 


3.06 


87.7 


2,046 


6.10 


204.5 


Persons/Room 


3.4 




3.4 






3.1 






# Households 


14,841 




19,516 




31.5 


31,115 




59.4 


20 yrs. old 






7,979 


36.4 




9,653 


28.8 


21.0 


1.01 PPR 






2,796 


14.1 




2,447 


7.9 


-12.5 


Deteriorating! 






3,847 






2,534 






Dilapidated! 






1,887 






612 







Note: All data is census data unless specifically noted otherwise. 

! Housing in Florida , prepared by the Office of the Governor, 
The Governor's Task Force on Housing and Community Development, 
and the State of Florida Department of Community Affairs, Vol. 1, 
Table IV, "Substandard Housing Totals by County and Kegion," 
pg. 12. 



28 



When expressed as a percent of total occupied housina, 
single-family housing declined almost 13 percentage points, 
as both multi-family units and mobile home units experienced 
a rise in popularity. Multi-familv units show the areatest 
increase as a proportion of total units, accountincr for 24% 
of all units in 1970, up nine percentage points from 15% in 
1960. Although mobile homes increased in absolute numbers bv 
204%, the proportion of total units being mobile homes rose 
three percentage points from 3% to 6%. 

The relative decline in single-family structures and the 
concomitant rise in multi-family units is oerhaps best ex- 
plained by the increase in student enrollment at the University 
of Florida and the housing needs and demands associated with 
students. Table 14 illustrates the trends in population and 
household development in Alachua County since 1960, dividing 
the county into Gainesville and the remainder of the county, 
and into student and non-student categories. It should be 
noted that Gainesville was the center of population and house- 
hold growth for the county from 1960 to 1970, and continues to 
play that role. It should be further noted that the vast 
majority of the student population resides in Gainesville, 
therefore, student household formation has a direct imoact on 
the housing market in Gainesville. 

Student demand for housing has been and remains largely 
associated with multi-unit apartment complexes, allowing for 
the propensity of students to room together and thereby save 
on rent. Accordingly, the absorption of new multi-family units 
is dependent upon the sizes of the student population. From 
1960 to 1965, student enrollment increased at an average annual 
rate of 750 additional students, and this figure jumped to an 
annual expansion of 1,074 students between 1960 and 1970. 
During the period from 1960 to 1965, multi-family construction 



29 









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amounted to an annual average of 330 units; this figure increased 
to 570 units per year (average) for the 1965-1970 time span. 
During the same time period, the University provided an addition- 
al 1,014 dwelling units in university-owned dormitories. 

Building permit data for the county and for the Gainesville 
Urban Area indicate that since 1970, multi-family construction 
has surpassed construction of single-f amilv units, and this 
construction has been centered in the Gainesville area. 
Approximately 2,000 sinale-f amilv units were authorized bv 
building permits from 1971 through March of 1973, v/hile multi- 
family unit authorization totaled aporoximatelv 4,600 units for 
the same time neriod (for the entire countv) . The placement of 
mobile home units by permit totaled 1,400. 

VACANCY RATE 

The vacancy rate for all housing in the county rose from 
1950 to 1960, but then declined again in 1970 to below the 1950 
mark. A more thorough breakdown of vacancy rates indicates that 
since 1960 the home-owner vacancy rate has steadily declined to 
a low in 1971 of approximately 1.9% (estimated) , from a high in 
1960 of 2.8%. In contrast to this, renter vacancy rates have 
fluctuated considerably, rising from 7.9% in 1960, to 9.3% in 
1970, and back down again to 6.4% (estimated) through April, 1971 

Figures from quarterly surveys performed bv the Off-Campus 
Housing Division at the University of Florida show that renter 
units are indeed highly dependent upon students as clientele. 
The data illustrates that the summer months consistentlv have 
higher vacancy rates that at anv other time of the year, and 
it is during the summer that student enrollment is down to 
approximately one-half what it is during the remainder of the 
year. 



31 



Table 15 
Vacancy Rates in Apartments 
Gainesville Urban Area 
1970-1973 





Number of 






Vacancy 


Date 


Projects 


Units 


Vacancies 


Rate % 


2/70 


33 


2,744 


95 


3.4 


5/6/70 


33 


2,744 


103 


3.8 


7/7/70 


33 


2,744 


398 


14.5 


11/4/70 


38 


3,190 


8 


.3 


2/9/71 


38 


3,190 


4 


.1 


4/27/71 


38 


3,190 


26 


.8 


7/16/71 


36 


2,794 


194 


6.9 


11/21/71 


38 


3,295 


13 


.3 


2/15/72 


35 


2,963 


18 


.6 


4/24-25/72 


35 


2,964 


39 


1.3 


7/72 


35 


2,964 


476 


16.0 


10/72-^ 


48 


4,462 


509 


11.4 


2/73 


46 


4,074 


269 


6.6 


4/73^ 


43 


3,898 


246 


6.31 



In October, 1972, the survey was broken down into prior 
units and new units . The prior unit vacancy rate was 
7.48, new unit rate, 26.89. 

2 

New unit vacancy rate was 13.47. 

Note: New units are only those units completed and marketable 

before September (beginning of academic year). Therefore, 
the 1973 figures do not include at least ten aoartment 
complexes . 



32 



OWNER-OCCUPIED HOUSING 

Owner-occupied housing, expressed as a percent of all 
occupied housing units, has remained consistent at approximately 
61% since 1960. Looking at a breakdown of owner-occupied houses 
by income groups, it is worthwhile to consider the economic 
aspects of building a house in the area, and to display some 
data regarding sales prices of houses currently on the market. 
This should give an indication of what the market will support, 
and what home-builders and buyers must pay. 

Information gained from the Home Builders Association 
of Gainesville suagests that the cost of materials for a typical 
residential unit has experienced an averaae annual cost increase 
of 3.8% since 1963. Within Alachua County, the cost of materials 
has risen 3% since April, 1973. The total cost of materials is 
not the only component that has become more expensive. Indeed, 
practically every aspect of home buildina and buving has experi- 
enced a cost increase. Interest rates have increased from 
approximately 5-3/4% to 6% in 1969, to 7.5% to 8% todav . Labor 
costs have also increased, and the cost of land has jumped 
considerably. For instance, a 100 foot by 100 foot lot, costing 
approximately $2,000 in 1963, now costs between $6,000 and $8,000, 
resulting in an increase bet^^7een 200% and 300%. 

A typical three-bedroom residential housina unit, with 
1,200 square feet of livina space on a 100 foot by 100 foot lot 
will cost today between $24,500 and $25,000. This figure 
includes a basic cost price of approximately $21,100, plus 
builder's profit and real estate commission. This cost will, 
of course, vary dependina on what amenities or luxuries are 
put into the house or grounds. Consequentlv , cost per square 
foot will also vary dependina upon what aoes into or what does 
not go into a specific house. 



33 



Table 16 
Value of Owner Occupied Housing 
Alachua County 
1970 



VALUE 






ALACKUA 
Countv 


GAINESVILLE 


BALANCE 


Specified owner 
occupied units . . . . 


. . . .15,089 


8,651 


6,438 


less than 


$5,000 . . . . 


.... 1,736 


368 


1,368 


$5,000 to 


$7,499 . . . . 


.... 1,516 


589 


927 


$7,500 to 


$9,999 . . . . 


.... 1,343 


679 


664 


$10,000 


to 


$14,999 . . . . 


.... 3,596 


2,328 


1,268 


$15,000 


to 


$19,999 . . . . 


.... 2,670 


1,974 


723 


$20,000 


to 


$24,999 . . . . 


.... 1,479 


1,013 


466 


$25,000 


to 


$34,999 . . . . 


.... 1,636 


1,037 


599 


$35,000 


to 


$49,999 . . . . 


.... 808 


490 


318 


$50, 000 


or 


more 


.... 305 


200 
$15,800 


105 


Median 




. . . $14,100 


$10,900 













Table 17 
Distribution of Houses, by Price, on Housina Market 

Gainesville 
April, 1973 



$25,000 
$25,000-$35,000 
$35,000-$50,000 

$50,000 



12 

13 
26 
_4 

55 



34 



To give some indication of the cost of housina, consider 
and contrast the census figures relating to the value of owner- 
occupied housing and the data regarding the prices of houses 
on the market, but not sold in April, 1973. Table 16 gives 
Census data for 1970. 

The census figures seem to indicate that the mid-point 
in the distribution of housina values for the county as a v/hole 
was $14,000 in 1970, and almost $16,000 in the Citv of Gaines- 
ville for the same year. Contrast this with Table 17 which 
indicates the number of houses by price ranae that were on the 
housing market, but not yet sold as of April, 1973. 

From this, it would appear that only 12, or 21.8%, of these 
new houses were potentially close to the 197 median value of 
houses in Gainesville, much less in the countv. it is 
significant to point out that the majority of these houses 
fall into the $35,000 to $50,000 price ranae. If the majority 
of new houses cost between $35,000 and $50,000, then following 
the rule of thumb that the purchase price of a new house should 
be no greater than twice the family income, it becomes apparent 
that the average family in the county or in Gainesville cannot 
afford a new home. Breaking down 1970 census figures for family 
incomes into percents , approximately 17.5% of total county families 
and 19.8% of Gainesville families have incomes greater than $15,000, 
and therefore, could possibly afford a house in the aiven price 
range. 

If indeed the figures on houses built, but not yet sold, 
is representative of the distribution of prices of houses being 
built, and if approximately 21.2% are priced below $25,000 with 
the typical residential unit costing $24,000 to $25,000, then 
61% of the county's population, and 58% of Gainesville's pop- 
ulation, with family incomes less than $10,000, cannot afford a 



35 



new home. While the emphasis here is on buying a new home, it 
is noteworthy to suggest that the filtration process alone cannot 
be counted on to provide housing for those families with insuf- 
ficient income to purchase a new home. 

RENTER OCCUPIED HOUSING 

The portion of occupied housing units that is renter- 
occupied has declined from a high in 1950 of 47% to a 1970 
figure of 39% (refer to Table 13). The rise in percentage points 
from 1960 to 1970 may in part be attributable to the risina costs 
of new home construction, particularly since 1969, and the tight 
money situation. In Alachua County, however, Gainesville is the 
center of the population and household growth, and the increase 
in renter-occupied units may also be partially explained bv the 
increase in student enrollment at the Universitv of Florida. 
Approximately 4,600 rental units (multi-family units) have been 
authorized by building permits since 1971, nearly all of which 
have been constructed. (Contrast this with the approximately 
2,000 single-family homes that were authorized in the same 
period, with approximatelv 90% of those authorized completed or 
under construction.) Of these 4,600 new apartment units, it can 
be assumed that a significant proportion will be occupied by 
student households. Referring acrain to the survey of apartment 
managers conducted by the University of Florida Division of 
Housing, it is interesting to note the replies to the question: 
"How many units are occupied by married students and single- 
student groups?" The trend of the results are: 

24-26% -- occupied by student families 
49-51% -- occupied by single-student groups 
(averaging 2.9 to 3,. students 
per unit) 
Balance 23-27% -- non-university personnel 



36 



Table 18 
Contract Rent for Renter Occupied Units 
Alachua County 
1970 



CONTRACT RENT 


Total 


Gainesville 


Balance 


Specified renter 
occupied units 

Less than $3 


.... 11,784 
.... 568 


9,451 

285 

613 

1,406 

1,583 

1,000 

2,533 

1,414 

283 

107 

227 

$95 


2,333 
283 


$30 to $39 


.... 757 


144 


$40 to $59 


.... 1,765 


359 


$60 to $79 


.... 1,962 


379 


$80 to $99 


.... 1,197 


197 


$100 to $149 


.... 2,958 


425 


$150 to $199 


.... 1,502 


88 


$200 to $249 


.... 320 


37 


$250 or more 


.... 114 


7 


No cash rent 


.... 641 


414 


Median 


.... $89 


$68 









Source: Census PHC (l)-77, H-1. 



37 



The implication here is that occupancy of apartment units 
has been specifically due to students or other university- 
related personnel, since those managers responding to the survey 
suggested that between 73% and 77% of their occupants were 
university-related. This trend may continue, even with the large 
increase in the number of apartments now available as both the 
University of Florida and Santa Fe Community College increase 
their enrollments, and as the Universitv of Florida Medical 
Center expands to include a school of dentistry and further research 
facilities . 

Although the cost of new housing construction has risen, and 
perhaps discouraged some people from considering a new home, rent 
levels have also increased. Table 18 indicates the contract rent 
for renter-occupied units in the county. 

For the newer apartment complexes that have been and are 
still being constructed, rent levels run somewhat as follows: 

1 Bedroom $140 - $180/mo. (unfurnished- 

kitchen equipped) 

2 Bedroom $190 - $250/mo. 

3 Bedroom $221 - $330/mo. 

4 Bedroom $280 - $360/mo. 

5 Bedroom flat .... $375/mo. 

MOBILE HOMES 

Mobile home units have increased considerably since 1960, 
and this may be partially explained by better unit construction, 
a dislike for, or an inability to afford either a new home or an 
apartment, and perhaps the attractiveness of this style housing 
to students, the elderly and young families. Mobile homes account 
for 6% of all housing units within the county, with the greatest 
concentration in or around Gainesville and Micanopy. This form 



38 





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39 



Table 20 
Housing Profile 
Alachua, 1960, 1970 



1960 



1970 





Total 


% 


Total 




% Chanae 


Total Housing 


577 




690 




19.6 


Units 












Total Occupied 


519 


90.0 


625 


90.6 


20.4 


Owner Occupied 


306 


53.0 


432 


62.6 


41.2 


Renter Occupied 


213 


36.9 


193 


27.9 


-9.4 


Vacant 


58 


10.1 


65 


9.4 


12.1 


Average Value 


$6,500 




9,486 




45.9 


Single Family 






653 


94.6 




Multi Family- 






30 


4.4 




Mobile Homes 






7 


1.0 




Persons Per 


3.8 




3.6 






Household 












Sound 


358 


62.0 


270 


40.5 


-24.6 


Deteriorating 


192 


33.3 


122 


18.3 


-36.5 


Dilapidated 


27 


4.7 


274 


41.2 


914.8 


Black Owner 






233 


33.8 




Occupied 












Black Renter 






103 


14.9 




Occupied 












Total Black 






336 


53.8 




Occupied 












Public Housing 






80 







Source : Housing Conditions Study 

1970 Census Access Printout 
1960 Census of Housing 



40 



Table 21 
Housing Profile 
Archer, 1970 



1970 





Total 


% 


Total Housing 
Units 


292 




Total 
Occupied 


262 


89.7 


Owner 
Occupied 


209 


71.6 


Renter Occupied 


66 


22.6 


Vacant 


16 


5.5 


Single Family 


261 


89.4 


Multi -Family 


10 


3.4 


Mobile Home 


21 


7.2 


Sound 


195 


57.1 


Deteriorating 


71 


20.8 


Dilapidated 


75 


22.1 



Persons Per 
Household 

Black Owner 
Occupied 

Black Renter 
Occupied 

Total Black 
Occupied 

Public Housing 



Source: Housing Conditions Study 

1970 Census Access Printout 



3.25 



61 

27 

88 
30 



20.9 

9.2 

31.9 



41 



Table 22 
Housina Profile 
Hav/thorne, 1960, 1970 







1960 


1970 • 1 


% Chanae 




Total 


% 


Total 


% 


1960-1970 


Total Housinq 
Units 


385 




382 






Total 
Occupied 


332 


83.6 


338 


88.5 


5.0 


Owner 
Occupied 


196 


50.9 


238 


62.3 


21.4 


Renter 
Occupied 


126 


32.7 


98 


25.7 


-22.2 


Vacant 


63 


16.4 


44 


11.5 


-30.2 


Average Value $ 






9,270 






Sinale Family 






350 


91.6 




Multi-Family 






23 


6.0 




Mobile Home 






8 


2.1 




Persons Per 
Household 


3.6 




3.30 






Sound 


235 


61.0 


181 


40.8 


-23.0 


Deteriorating 


95 


24.7 


98 


22 


3.2 


Dilapidated 


55 


14.3 


165 


37.2 


200.0 


Black Owner 
Occupied 






106 


27.7 




Black Renter 
Occupied 






56 


14.7 




Total Black 
Occupied 






162 


47.9 




Public Housing 






40 







Source : Housina Conditions Study 

1970 Census Access Printout 
1960 Census of Housing 



42 



Table 23 
HousincT Profile 
High Springs, 1960, 1970 





1960 


1970 


% Chanae 




Total 


% 


Total 


% 


1960-1970 


Total Housing 
Units 


785 




938 




19.5 


Total 
Occupied 


724 


92.2 


871 


92.9 


20.3 


Owner 
Occupied 


507 


64.6 


658 


70.2 


29.8 


Renter 
Occupied 


217 


27.6 


211 


22.5 


2.8 


Vacant 


61 


7.8 


67 


7.1 


9.8 


Average Value 


$6,000 




8,800 




46.7 


Single Family 






865 


92.2 




Multi-Family 






55 


5.9 




Mobile Home 






18 


1.9 




Persons Per 
Household 


3.2 




3.2 






Sound 


649 


82.7 


439 


49.4 


-32.4 


Deteriorating 


110 


14.0 


164 


18.4 


49.1 


Dilapidated 


26 


3.3 


287 


32.2 


1003.9 


Black Owner 
Occupied 






198 


21.1 




Black Renter 
Occupied 






73 


7.8 




Total Black 
Occupied 






271 


31.1 





Source : Housing Conditions Study 

1970 Census Access Printout 
1960 Census of Housing 



43 



Table 24 
Housing Profile 
Micanopy, 1970 



1970 





Total 


o, 
■o 


Total Housing 


262 




Units 






Total 






Occupied 


245 


93.5 


Owner 






Occupied 


186 


71.0 


Renter 






Occupied 


59 


22.5 


Vacant 


17 


6.5 


Single Family 


214 


81.7 


Multi-Family 


11 


4.2 


Mobile Home 


37 


14.1 


Sound 


109 


36.9 


Deteriorating 


117 


39.5 


Dilapidated 


70 


23.6 


Persons Per 


3.10 




Household 






Black Owner 


81 


30.9 


Occupied 






Black Renter 


16 


6.1 


Occupied 






Total Black 


97 


39.6 


Occupied 







Source : Housing Conditions Study 

1970 Census Access Printout 



44 



Table 25 
Housing Profile 
Newberry, 1960, 1970 





1960 




1970 


% Change 




Total 


% 


Total 


% 


1960-1970 


Total Housing 
Units 


372 




426 




14.5 


Total 
Occupied 


342 


91.9 


389 


91.3 


13.7 


Owner 
Occupied 


250 


67.2 


297 


69.7 


18.8 


Renter 
Occupied 


92 


24.7 


92 


21.6 


9.9 


Vacant 


30 


8.1 


37 


8.7 


23.3 


Average Value $ 


4,500 




6,810 






Single Family 






365 


85.7 




Multi -Family 






24 


5.6 




Mobile Home 






37 


8.7 




Persons Per 
Household 


3.2 




3.21 






Sound 


257 


69.1 


216 


49.4 


16.0 


Deteriorating 


89 


23.9 


93 


21.3 


2.6 


Dilapidated 


26 


7.0 


128 


29.3 


469.2 


Black Owner 
Occupied 






86 


20.2 




Black Renter 
Occupied 






45 


10.6 




Total Black 
Occupied 






131 


33.7 




Public Housing 






30 







Source : Housing Conditions Study 

1970 Census Access Printout 
1960 Census of Housing 



45 



Table 26 
Housing Profile 
Waldo, 1970 



1970 





Total 


% 


Total Housing 
Units 


303 




Total 
Occupied 


278 


91.7 


Owner 
Occupied 


226 


74.6 


Renter 
Occupied 


49 


16.2 


Vacant 


25 


8.3 


Single Family 


262 


86.5 


Multi -Family 


12 


4.0 


Mobile Home 


27 


8.9 


Sound 


122 


39.2 


Deteriorating 


97 


31.2 


Dilapidated 


92 


29.6 


Persons Per 
Household 


2.87 




Black Owner 
Occupied 


43 


14.2 


Black Renter 
Occupied 


16 


5.3 


Total Black 


59 


21.2 


Occupied 






Public Housing 


20 





Source : Housing Conditions Study 

1970 Census Access Printout 



46 



of shelter affords the occupant the securitv and (potentially) I 

the convenience of a house or an apartment without the cost of 

either. Mobile homes have increased numerically bv the greatest ^ 

percentage of any other housing unit tvpe in the last twentv 

years . t 



I 



i 

r 



I 



[i 



Housing Projections 



HOUSING NEEDS 

Methodology 

In order to forecast housing needs , one must forecast the 
number of households, v/hich bv definition is eauivalent to the 
number of occupied housing units. For the purposes of this 
report, the study area will be divided into three sections: the 
Gainesville Urban Area; the smaller municinalities ; and the 
balance, or the unincorporated areas of Alachua County. 

For the Gainesville Urban Area and the smaller municipalities , 
the population projections from the Population and Economics 
Study (N.C.F.R.P.C. , 1972) will be used. However, population 
projections for the unincorporated areas are made difficult by 
a lack of pertinent data; consequently, population levels and 
housing unit counts for this area will be held constant at the 
level determined in the Housing Conditions Study (N.C.F.R.P.C, 
1972) . Total housing needs for the county as a whole will then be 
determined by summing the totals of the three divisions. 

Gainesville Urban Area 

The procedure for arriving at figures for the Gainesville 
Urban Area and the smaller municipalities is as follows : 

1) beginning with the population projections from the 
Population and Economics Study , subtract the number 
of people residing in group quarters (if any) who 
would not be included in a housing census; 

2) divide this figure, representing the population in 
housing units, by the projected population per 
household (or, by definition, copulation per 



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49 



occupied housing unit) , resultina in the total 
number of occupied housing units; and 

3) determine the vacancy rates for each area and 

apply this to the total number of occupied housing 
units to arrive at the total number of housina 
units. 



Assumptions 



1) The size of households in the Gainesville Urban 
Area will decrease steadilv. 

2) The vacancy rate of 7.1% will be held constant 
for the purposes of the study. Vacancy rate is 
derived by averaging rates of the recent past. 

3) Figures represent gross housing needs for specific 
years shown. 

With the given assumptions, the results are indicated 
in Table 27. 



The Smaller Municipalities 

Forecasting for the smaller municipalities is made diffi- 
cult due to the lack of trend data and the size of the 
communities. Such small size limits the accuracy of projections; 
the best approach is to assume that conditions will remain rel- 
atively the same throughout the study time period. 

Assumptions 

1) In the smaller municipalities, persons per dwelling 
unit (PPDU) will be synonymous with persons per 
household (PPH) . Therefore, population projections 
divided by persons per dwelling unit (or persons per 
household) will yield the number of occupied housing 
units . 

2) Where trend data is available, projections will 
be made regarding household size; where no trend 
data exists, household size will be held constant 
at the latest reported figure. 



50 



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57 



3) Vacancy rates in these municipalities varied in 
1970 from 5.5% in Archer to 11.5% in Hawthorne. 
This vacancy rate will be held constant for the 
purpose of projections, and it is considered un- 
realistic to calculate any additional turnover 
rates. 

4) Figures represent gross housing needs for the years 
shown. Gross housing needs assumes that those 
structures presently rated dilapidated will be 
cleared and that new structures will be built as 
replacements. A further assumption is that deteriora- 
ting structures will be renovated and will not become 
dilapidated. 

5) Barring new industry or major shifts in the economy, 
the type and tenure of housing should show little 
significant change over the years. 

(Mobile homes may be an exception, although they 
will probably constitute single-family dwellings 
and be owner-occupied. If construction costs con- 
tinue to rise and housing construction centers in 
the Ganiesville Urban Area, mobile homes may be 
increasingly used as housing by low-income rural 
families and individuals who cannot afford a new 
home. The long-range effects of mobile homes on 
the housing markets will to a large part be deter- 
mined by local statutes which may enhance or 
restrict their use. Specific local statutes should, 
therefore, be periodically consulted to update and 
reassess the potential effects of mobile homes on 
local housing markets. 



The Unincorporated Areas 

The remainder of the county, the unincorporated areas 
excluding the Gainesville Urban Area, will be held constant 
throughout the study time period. Data for this area is as 
follows : 



58 



Table 3 5 
Housing Type, Unincorporated Areas of Alachua County* 

Total Housing Units - 4,263 
Single-Family - 3,252 
Multi-Family - 10 
Mobile Homes - 1,001 



* Does not include unincorporated area of Gainesville Urban 
Area. 



Summing the totals for the three study divisions results in 
a total housing figure for Alachua County through 1985. 

Table 36 
Housing Units, Alachua County 
1973, 1975, 1980, 1985 

1973 1975 1980 1985 



Population 119,214 127,872 145,111 165,432 

Total Housing 38,861 41,924 48,689 56,074 

Total Occupied 35,819 38,583 44,810 51,607 

Owner Occupied 22,010 23,695 27,523 31,667 

Renter Occupied 13,874 14,880 17,278 19,923 

Vacant 3,093 3,340 3,879 4,464 

Single-Family 25,606 27,076 30,281 33,375 

Multi-Family 9,525 10,730 13,505 16,608 

Mobile Homes 3,727 4,078 4,929 5,893 

Note: Figures are rounded, therefore, summina by 
category may not equal figure given repre- 
senting totals. 



59 






FIGURE 2 


in 

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Figure 2 contrasts the projected housing needs for Alach\ia 
County with two construction rates for the county. The 1960- 
1970 construction rate is derived from 1960 and 1970 Census counts 
of housing units. The 1968-1972 construction rate is derived by 
tabulating figures of building permits issued during that time 
period. Both of these construction rates are projected forward 
in time to give an indication of the rate of housing construction 
needed to meet the county's anticipated demand. 

Structural Conditions 

Determining net new housing demand by area necessitates 
estimatina how many units in the current housincr stock warrant 
rehabilitation and how many warrant clearance. Usina as a data 
base the Housing Conditions Study (N.C .F . R.P .C . , 1972) it is 
possible to determine how many units are dilapidated, therefore 
rating clearance, and how many are deteriorating, warrantina 
rehabilitation. This data is portraved in Table 37. 

Table 37 
Units Ratina Rehabilitation (Deterioratina) And 
Clearance (Dilaoidated) 



Deterioratina 









Dilapidated 


Alachua County 






4 


,167 


Gainesv.'i lie Urt 


lan 


Area 


2 


,694 


Alachua 








274 


Archer 








75 


Hawthorne 








165 


High Springs 








287 


MicanoDV 








70 


Newberry 








128 


Waldo 








92 


Unincorporated 


Area 




382 



3,637 
2,551 

122 
71 
98 

164 

117 
93 
97 

324 



61 



Net New Housing Needs 

To arrive at net new housina needs, two ooerations are 
necessary: 



1) subtract the dilapidated housina stock, as identified 
in the 1972 Housing Conditions Study , from the aross 
housing stocTT^^ resultina in the net sound housing stock; 
and 

2) subtract net sound housina stock from the projected 
gross housina needs to determine the net new housing 
need. 



This procedure will yield the results indicated in Table 38. 

Consumer Capabilities 

Anticipatina housina demand in numerical terms is not a 
complete assessment of the housina needs picture. The ability 
and willingness of potential consumers to pay for various 
housing types is an important complement to determining 
numerical demand. How much consumers will be willina to pay 
cannot be projected; however, some idea of the capabilities of 
consumers can be gained by projecting the distribution of family 
incomes. Using the most recent census figures as a data base, 
computing an average annual increase in wages and salaries and 
projecting this trend into the future, it is possible to project 
family income, as shown in Tables 3 9 and 40. The reader should 
be cautioned that these figures represent total income before 
taxes, and therefore, should not be confused with disposable 
income. Table 39 depicts the percent distribution of families 
within each specified income aroup, while Table 4 shows income 
by deciles, dividina the distribution of families with income 
into ten groups of equal frequency. 



62 





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63 



Followinq the rule of thumb that the purchase price of a 
home should not exceed two to two and one-half times a familv's 
income suaaests that in 1975 one-half of the families v^ill be 
able to afford a home in the $25,400 and over price ranae . By 
1980, this fiaure rises to $27,000, and bv 1985 to $29,688. 
However, this is not the complete picture; in 1975, it is oroiected 
that 4 0% of the families vrill have incomes less than or equal to 
$10,000, and will, therefore, be unable to purchase homes priced 
above the $20,000 to $25,000 ranqe. Bv 1980, this percentaqe will 
decrease to 35% and, by 1985, 31.25%. This indicates that by 1985 
approximately one-third of the families will qenerate a need for 
housing priced at or below $25,000. 

A more detailed picture of the need for low cost housing is 
provided in Table 41. Assuming the cost of a house as only twice 
the family income, instead of two and one-half times, then by 
1985 greater than one-third of the families (38.75%) will need 
housing costing at or below $25,000. Subdividing by housinq 
value indicates that there will be a very substantial need for 
housinq below the $16,000 price fiqure. 

A more complete picture of the ability of the future consumer 
to pay for housinq is shown in Table 42. Followinq the accepted 
standard that housing costs, whether on terms of monthly rent or 
mortgage payments, should account for no more than 25% of a 
family's income, it is significant to point out that by 1985 at 
least 11.25% of the families will need housina with monthly 
payments less than $105. It should be noted that the figures in 
the table represent the upper limit of the consumers ability to 
pay, as determined by the criteria mentioned above. This should 
not be construed to imply a willinaness on the part of the consumer 
to pay these prices. 



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68 



Minorities 

Using the same method as for estimatina the distribution 
of income within the county, projections v/ere made for the 
distribution of Black familv income, illustrated in Table 43 
and 44. It becomes immediately obvious that the housinq pur- 
chasina power of Black families is considerablv lower than for 
all families within the county. This becomes more evident when 
reconsidering the information in Tables 41 and 42. Table 43 
indicates that by 1985, 69% of the Black families will be unable 
to afford housing priced above $25,000. Furthermore, 50% of the 
Black families will be unable to afford a house above $16,000. 

Referring again to Table 42, it is possible to estimate 
the percent distribution of Black families by monthly Dayment. 
Remembering that for the county as a whole 11.25% of the families 
in 1985 will need housina costing less than or equal to $105 
per month, the corresponding figure for Black families is 30.00%. 

Housing Costs 

Statistics compiled by the Federal qovernment indicate that 
the cost of new housing has increased dramatically in the recent 
decade. The median sales price of new housina in the United 
States increased from $18,000 in 1963 to $26,6000 in 1969, and 
again to $34,100 in 1973, a total increase of 89.4%. This 
increase is attributable to several factors, notably quick risina 
land prices, construction costs, includ.ing m.aterials and labor, and 
a consumer affluence reflected in a desire for more square footaae 
per house coupled with more built-in amenities. 

Although the largest single component of housincr costs is 
the cost of construction, the most significant increase in com- 
ponent costs is found in land acquisition and improvement. In 



69 



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71 



the 1957-1966 time period, lot prices in the South Atlantic region 
increased 69%, second only to the Pacific region where the increases 
registered 82% (Douglas Commission, 422) . The National Association 
of Home Builders suggest that, on a national scale, land costs in 
1969 accounted for 37% of the total cost of a new house ( Housing 
in Florida , Vol. 1, p. 122) . This varies with each region. 

Data supplied by the Home Builders Association of Gainesville 
indicate that lot prices in Alachua County have increased dramatically 
since 1963. A lot that cost $2,000 in 1963 is now estimated to cost 
between $6,000 and $8,000, an increase of 200% to 300%. Lot prices 
will vary with lot size, geographical location, and degree of develop- 
ment. A standard lot just south of Gainesville without a paved road, 
curbs or street drains may cost as little as $3,000. In northwest 
Gainesville, lots with paved streets and curbs may cost between $6,000 
and $12,000, depending on size. Regardless of size and location, the 
land component of housing costs can only continue to increase in price 
as demand increases and available land becomes more scarce. 

The trend of high costs for materials and labor should also be 
expected to continue. The costs of materials has increased at an 
average annual rate of 3.8% since 1963. Furthermore, the price of 
materials rose nearly 3% between April and June of 1973. 

If the costs of land, labor and materials continue to rise at 
the rates identified above, then estimates of the projected costs of 
new houses, which in 1973 cost $25,000, are as indicated in Table 45. 

On the other hand, median family income is projected to increase 
only 28% during the same time period. A comparison of the family in- 
come projections with estimates of the sales price of new houses 
suggests that the percentage of families with the potential purchasing 
power to buy a new home will steadily decrease, as graphically illus- 
trated in Figure 3. By 1985, although the income projections indicate 
a top-heavy distribution of incomes, fewer than half of the families 
will be able to sustain purchasing a new home. 



72 



Table 45 

Alachua County 

Estimated Cost of New Single-Family Home 

1973, 1975, 1980, 1985 

1973 - $25,000^ 

1975 - 28,000 

1980 - 35,500 

1985 - 43,000 

■•-Cost of $25,000 for 1973 is for a 3 bedroom house 
with approximately 1,200 square feet of living 
space, on a 100' by 100' lot. (Home Builders 
Association of Gainesville) 

Low Income, Subsidized and Public Housing 

Referring to Tables 41 and 42, it is estimated that by 1985, 
38.75% of all families in the county will not be able to afford housing 
costing greater than $25,000. Yet, the typical residential unit is 
projected to cost approximately $43,000. Although the filtration 
process may provide houses for a portion of those families who can- 
not afford new housing, filtration alone cannot be counted on to pro- 
vide housing for the approximately 28,000 households who cannot afford 
a $43,000 home. 

With the cost of new, single family houses continually rising, it 
is probably a fair assumption to suggest that new types of housing units 
will attract more attention. Apartments, condominiums or mobile homes 
have all increased significantly since 1960 or even since 1970, and 
there are new concepts, such as modular homes and cluster houses, that 
may increase in popularity. 

However, all housing units have some type of monthly payment, and 
this is a convenient guide by whicn to measure the need for low income, 
subsidized and public housing. Referring to Table 42 it is estimated 
that 8.5% of all families in the county will not be able to afford 
monthly housing payments exceeding $8 5 in 198 5. This represents 
approximately 4,400 families. Furthermore, 18.75% of all families 
will be unable to afford payments greater than $14 5. Translating this 
into housing units, approximately 9,7 00 sound housing units will be 



7"^ 



r 



FIGURE 3 




0) 









O 

'55 



(0 
o 



o 

3 
0. 



(« CO 

3 3 

o o 

XX 



I 

L 

Li 
R 

it 



needed by 1985 which will rent for $145 or less. The $145 figure is 
a rather arbitrary one used as a cutoff, and could conceivably be 
higher by 1985. The point remains, however, that by '1985 there 
will be a need for approximately 9,700 housing units costing less 
than $145 per month, for those low income families,, and households, 
such as elderly households, which operate on a fixed income. Whatever 
portion of these 9,7 00 units which cannot be provided by filtration 
or otherwise from the private sector, must be provided by the public 
sector . 



75 




HOUSING LOCATION CRITERIA 

•Site Planning Criteria 
•Water & Sewer Utilities 



Site Planning Criteria 



GENERAL 



Since primitive times there has been a continual need for 
man to plan his environment. Originally, these needs were to 
provide security from enemies and predatory animals, protection 
against v/eather, and to maintain health and the general welfare 
of the community. 

Because the requirements of civilization are constantly 
changing, the need to plan is a continuina one. Increasing 
population and the great variety of new land uses, combined 
with increased demand for services and greater access to open 
spaces, make necessary more intensive planning for the devel- 
opment of land. 

BASIC NEED FOR SITE PLANNING 

Except for the principal considerations of magnitude, scale, 
and degree of complexity, the basic planning tenets for subdivisions 
are the same as for larger cities. This section is slanted toward 
site planning for subdivision developments, and the planning effort 
required for adequate preparation for such develooment may be quite 
complex. A tremendous amount of information is needed for proper 
development of specific land areas. Not only must active study be 
given to the physical qualities of an area, such as topography, 
geology, soils, and drainage, but the physical human needs of 
utilities, transportation, and cultural characteristics of the pro- 
spective population must be assessed to determine design and layout 
requirements based on human values, reason, acceotability of tech- 
nological approaches, and suitability to development. 

This section of the Housing Study vrill deal primarily with 
those physical qualities that must be considered in development 



76 



site planning, including a discussion of topography, climate, 
geology, and drainage. Because the presence or absence of water 
and sewer utilities provides local government considerable control 
over developmental direction, a discussion of these basic utilities 
will also be included. 

SOURCES OF INFORMATION 

Prior to actual subdivision site planning, there are 
several important sources of information that may furnish data 
on physical parameters. Such basic data may, with little effort, 
provide the planner or reviewing agency with enough information 
to determine whether any serious limitina conditions are 
prevalent in the area to be developed. A thorough pre-plannina 
effort can be of great value to determinina final design criteria 
and requirements to allow for the most economical development 
and most efficient overall plan for which local governmental 
bodies can reasonably provide services. 

Series of maps useful in planning are available from agencies 
of the Federal and state governments. The most commonly available 
maps are from the United States Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.), a 
division of the Department of the Interior. The Geological Survey 
office produces standard topographic maps covering the entire 
United States. Each map is bounded by parallels of latitude and 
meridians of longitude. These "quadrangle" maps are produced in 
three series: a 7-1/2 minute series coverina 7-1/2 minutes 
of latitude and longitude at a scale of 1:24,000; a 15 minute 
series covering 15 minutes of latitude and lonaitude at a scale 
of 1:62,500: and a 30 minute series coverina 30 minutes of 
latitude and longitude at a scale of 1:125,000. These maps 
(called U.S.G.S. maps) are available through Distribution Section, 
U.S. Geological Survey, 1200 South Eads Street, Arlington, 
Virginia, 22202 and at local distribution centers. 



77 



The U.S.G.S. maps contain three basic types of data: 
cultural features; water features; and topographic relief. 
Cultural features include roads, railroads, cities, and towns. 
Water features include lakes, rivers, streams, and major 
intermittent channels. Topographic relief is showii with con- 
tour lines and spot elevations. The contour intervals vary 
from map to map depending on the scale and the relief of the 
country. 

Some maps include additional information such as wood- 
land areas, limits of urbanized areas, highway classifications 
and the boundaries of major public land areas. Index maps, 
by state, are available from the Distribution Section of the 
U.S.G.S. and local distributors sliowing the maps available in 
the state and their titles. 

Maps which show topography and other features for much of 
Alachua County can be obtained from the State Department of 
Transportation, the North Central Florida Regional Planning 
Council, and the County Engineer. Aerial photographs are 
available for purchase or examination for many areas of the 
county through the North Central Florida Regional Planning 
Council, the County Forestry office, and at least one commer- 
cial establishment. Sucn photos are often quite useful in 
assessing subsurface structures, drainage patterns, vegetation 
coverage, and surrounding land use. 

Information on rainfall records, stream flows, flood limits 
and other pertinent records are available through the U.S. 
Weather Bureau and the U.S. Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.). The 
U.S.G.S. and the Florida Geological Survey have on record 
considerable data on area-wide geologic conditions, as well as 
data on ground and surface water availability and quality. 



78 



Tne U.S.G.S. maps contain tnree ioasic types of data: 
cultural features; water features; and topograpnic relief. 
Cultural features include roads, railroads, cities, and towns. 
Water features include lakes, rivers, streams, and major 
intermittent channels. Topograpnic relief is snown witn con- 
tour lines and spot elevations. The contour intervals vary 
from map to map depending on tiie scale and the relief of tne 
country. 

Some maps include additional information such as wood- 
land areas, limits of urbanized areas, nignway classifications 
and tne iDoundaries of major public land areas. Index maps, 
Dy state, are available from tne Distribution Section of tne 
U.S.G.S. and local distriiautors showing the maps available in 
tne state and tneir titles. 

Maps wnich show topograpny and otner features for mucn of 
Alacnua County can De obtained from tne State Department of 
Transportation, tne Nortn Central Florida Regional Planning 
Council, and tne County Engineer. Aerial pnotograpns are 
available for purchase or examination for many areas of tiie 
county tnrough tne Nortn Central Florida Regional Planning 
Council, tne County Forestry office, and at least one commer- 
cial estaulisnment. Sucn pnotos are often quite useful in 
assessing subsurface structures, drainage patterns, vegetation 
coverage, and surrounding land use. 

Information on rainfall records, stream flows, flood limits 
and otiier pertinent records are available tnrough tne U. S. 
Weatner Bureau and tne U. S. Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.). Tne 
U.S.G.S. and tne Florida Geological Survey have on record 
considerable data on area-wide geologic conditions, as well as 
data on ground and surface water availaDility and quality. 



79 



The U.S. Soil Conservation Service throuah county agents can 
usually provide a wide variety of information on soil types 
and capabilities. The Alachua Countv aqent has available 
general soils maps for the county at a scale of one inch to 
four miles. In addition, descriptive information is available 
on each soil type indicating general soil capability for a 
variety of uses, such as, but not limited to, septic tanks, 
woodland suitability, and ground water levels. 

Various other maps are available in Alachua Countv show- 
ing existing zoning, present and projected land uses, and land 
ownership. None of this information, however, should be used 
in lieu of actual field reconaissance . Anyone involved in 
site planning or evaluation should become fully acauainted 
with the physical characteristics and peculiarities of an area 
which in many instances are not indicated on nublished maps or 
included in available data. 

TOPOGRAPHY 

Limiting Effects of Topography 

Urban development tends to follow landform's path of 
least resistance modified by the technology of the period. 
For example, it may often be observed that rivers and valleys 
tend to channel urban expansion; major highways and railroads 
tend to follow river channel routes because of the qenerallv 
gradual continuous grades; and bridges that often open up new 
areas for development tend to be constructed at the narrowest 
points of rivers or where the river is shallow and exhibits 
a hard bottom and easy access grades. Therefore, topographv 
may often, to a large extent, help shape the total pattern of 
growth. 



80 



Topography, or land form, interacts with those physical 
characteristics that help shape or form it, such as tvoe of 
soils, drainage pattern, climate, and veaetation. Therefore, 
because of its imposition on the natural environment, land 
development must insure the stability of topography during 
the physical development of sites by providina adequate 
grading (slope stabilization) , drainage and use suitable soil 
structures in order to make the best use of the construction 
site within the limitations set by the tODoaraphv. 

Slope Use Zoning • 

Within the framework of construction practices and tech- 
nology there are certain slopes, or ranges of slopes, upon 
which certain types of construction can be most economically 
undertaken. This concept is referred to as slope use zoning. 

On certain specific slopes the cost of construction to 
meet the common needs of certain land uses will be minimized. 
This cost of construction, as reflected in the consumer cost, 
includes not only the cost of the structures, but also the 
costs of site preparation, site development, utility services 
and the provision of necessary drainage facilities and access 
roads. The following outline illustrates the land uses that 
would exist in an area, if economy in physical construction 
based on ground slope qualities was the only influence on 
urban form and structure. It also generally summarizes the 
developmental restrictions imposed by topographv. 

Slope Range : 0-1 % 

Industry: Large scale lineal production uses. 

(Slopes greater than this either inter- 
fere with production line methods or 
increase construction costs. 

Commerce: (Expensive due to drainaqe problems.) 

Residence: (Expensive due to drainage problems.) 



81 



Roads : 
Recreation 



Agriculture 

Slope Range 
Industry : 

Commerce : 



Residence : 
Roads : 
Recreation 



Agriculture 
Slope Range 
Industry: 

Commerce : 

Residence : 



Roads : 



(Expensive due to drainage problems.) 
Dangerous due to standing water and fog. 

Picnic and informal small-group field 
sports, not intensive. (Difficult 
ground drainage and expensive artificial 
drainage systems make provision for 
organized or intensive sport-recreation 
use expensive.) 

Truck crops in flood plain areas, general 
farming elsewhere. 

1-3% 



Moderate and small plants without exten- 
sive lineal production, trucking termin- 
als, warehouses. 

Commercial developments of all types , 
especially well-suited to large-scale 
"shopping center" development and park- 
ing lots. (Good natural drainage, easy 
slopes, easy truck and auto access.) 

All types: single family, multi-family, 
town house, high rise. 

In any pattern. Landform in no way 
influences the geometry of the road system 

Playgrounds, and playfields, intensive 
picnic, intensive informal field sports, 
camping. (Sufficiently flat for organ- 
ized field sports, yet sufficiently sloped 
for good natural drainage.) 

General farming . 

3-5% 

Intensive small-scale industry with min- 
imum trucking needs. 

Small scale individual commercial struc- 
tures. (Parking areas must be terraced.) 

Clustered single-family residences and 
multi-family residences, town houses 
and high rise units. (With terraced 
parking lots, or parking garages) . 

(Truck roads must run parallel with, or 
diagonal to, the contours. High speed 
roads similarly limited.) 



82 



Recreation 



Agriculture 
Slope Range 
Industry: 

Commerce : 
Residence : 



Roads : 



Recreation: 
Agriculture : 

Slope Range : 
Industry: 
Commerce : 
Residence: 

Roads : 
Recreation : 

Agriculture : 

(C & RP 842) 



Playgrounds, playfields, picnic, informal 
field sports, camping in 3-4% only. 
From 4-5%--picnic , informal field 
sports, golf course, nature trail, natural 
hiking area, camping. 

General farming. 

5-12% 

Intensive small industry on slopes 

up to 7%. (Truck access difficult if not 

impossible . ) 

Small scale individual commercial structures 
on slopes from 5-8%. Economic construc- 
tion practically precluded on site with 
slopes over 8% . 

Clustered single-family residence and multi- 
family residences. (Upper-middle income on 5- 
8% slopes, high income on 8-12% slopes.) 
Town house and high rise. (With terraced 
parking lots, or parking garages.) 

(Truck roads and high speed roads must run 
parallel with the contours. In areas of 
slope over 8%, road routing is virtually 
dictated by the terrain and roads parallel 
with or diagonal to the contours create 
serious problems of access to the abutting 
properties due to the need cut and fill of 
the roadway, whereas roads perpendicular to 
the contours require long cuts and fills) . 

Golf course, nature trails, camping hiking. 

General farming from 5-8%. Specialized 
farming from 8-12%. 

Over 12% 

(Economically impractical.) 

(Economically impractical.) 

Isolated high income single family residence 
on large lots. Ultra High income prestige 
apartment towers with internal parking. 

(All types extremely expensive.) 

Isolated small picnic sites, nature trails, 
hiking, wilderness camping (no auto access). 

Specialized farming on slopes near 12%, 
pasture. Without machinery. 



83 



Obviously slope use zoning is not the only influence 
on land use development; nowever, it does often greatly modify 
developmental form and structure. 

CLIMATE 

General 

The study of local climate is necessary if good living 
conditions for people and plant life are to be obtained. 
Topography, altitude and exposure (or protection) by neignbor- 
ing landforms or windbreaks will affect temperature and wind 
velocities. Proximity to coast or industries will affect tne 
light factor and produce salinity or fog and air pollution. 
The seasonal variation of temperature and humidity of the air 
due to geographical positions will affect the detail planning 
of a locality, and even small areas within a locality sucn as 
parks and woodlands. 

Climatological data can be obtained from U.S. Weather 
Bureau publications for five stations located within the 
county. Two of these stations are in the Gainesville area and 
the other three are located in High Springs, Melrose, and 
Island Grove. Gainesville's weather monitoring stations keep 
records of precipitation, temperature, and evaporation, and 
maintain both recording and non-recording gauges. Precipitation 
and temperature records for the area are available for a period 
of more than 60 years up to and including 1956, from the old 
University of Florida station at Gainesville. (Comprehensive 
Area-Wide Plan for Water and Sewer Development, p. 2-7.) 

A general description of local climate for Alachua County 
and north central Florida may be found in many locally-avail- 
able publications including the two bibliographical references 



84 



of: Comnrehensive Area-^-''ide Plan for Water and Sewer Develop- 
ment for Alachua County; and Clark, et al , V^ater Resources 
of Alachua, Bradford, Clay and Union Counties, Florida. 

Influence of Climate on Urban Structure 



In general, there are eight primary determinants of climate 
quality that influence urban structure and development: (1) lat- 
itude, (2) altitude, (3) landform, (4) water bodies, (5) temper- 
ature, (6) wind, (7) humidity, and (8) precipitation. Varietv 
in the combination of these determinants results in the wide 
variety of local climatic conditions. The following discussion 
describes the more important of these aspects that pertain to 
climatic considerations in Florida that are not mentioned in 
other sections of this studv- 

The latitude of an area determines the amount of time 
during which the sun can shine on any day of the vear . There- 
fore, the further a place is from the equator, the less will 
be the angle made betv/een the sunlight and the surface of the 
ground at any given time. Moving away from the eauator results 
in a decrease in solar radiation per square foot of horizontal 
area and sun brightness due to increased filtration of the sun's 
radiation by the earth's atmosphere. The general maxim, there- 
fore, for site locations in hot climates is that areas afford- 
ing natural shading by vegetation and landforms are desirable 
for development locations. 

In Florida with elevations ranaing to only about 400 
feet, altitude is not a major factor in development site 
selection. Slope changes are relatively gentle, and there 
is insufficient variation in altitude to warrant special 
planning effort. 

Where all other influences on local climate are constant, 
variation in landform v/ill result in variation in climate. 



85 



In the Northern Hemisphere, south slopes v/ill be warmer than 
flat land because they will receive more direct sunlight. 
During the summer months, slopes facing to the southwest will 
be even v/armer than south-facing slopes, but they will be 
colder than south-facing slopes in the winter. In general , 
steep north slopes are inevitablv the coolest areas as they receive 
virtually no direct sunlight at any season of the vear. Hollows 
and areas at the foot of long slopes collect cold air. Cold air 
"flows" into them from higher areas, sometimes resulting in 
temperatures that are 10° to 15°t^ colder than surroundina areas. 
Landforms may also channel, redirect, and intensifv prevailing 
winds. In general, it is preferable to locate residential 
areas on south or southeast facing slopes. East slopes are 
superior to west slopes to take advantage of the risina sun and 
avoid the direct rays of the hot afternoon sun. And it is better 
to keep structures up on any slope than in the bottom of a valley 
to take advantage of prevailing winds. 

Water bodies, such as rivers, lakes, and oceans have a 
great influence on climate. Water temperatures fluctuate slower 
than air temperatures. During the summer months, water areas 
absorb heat slowly during the day and release it slowly during 
the night. Nearby land areas are generally cooler during 
summer days, but warmer at night, than comparable areas that are 
not near water bodies. The same process occurs on a laraer 
scale with regard to the seasons. Water areas absorb heat in the 
summer and release it during the winter, making the climate of 
nearby land areas cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter. 
Bodies of water, particularlv large water areas, tend to eaualize 
temperature extremes. In general, development locations near 
water bodies are highly desirable because the variations in dailv 
temperature will remain more stable than surrounding areas. 

In a consideration of temperature, it can be observed 
that heat absorbed by materials during the day is released 



86 



during the night. In climates where summer heat is high, low 
reflectivity, or high absorbtion, often results in very hot 
night temperatures. The variation in relative heat aains in 
materials is illustrated in Table 46 below. 

Table 46 
Heat Absorption Characteristics of Selected 
Ground Surfaces 

Ground Surface Material % of Total Sun's Heat 

Reflected Absorbed 

Bare rock 12-15 85-88 

Bare ground 9-25 75-91 

Grass 32 68 

Green Fields 3-15 85-97 

Desert 24-28 72-76 

Brick 23-48 52-77 

Asphalt 15 85 

(C & RP 842) 

In order to offset undesirable temperature conditions 
in warm areas, efforts should be made to maximize shading and 
minimize heat absorption. In addition to building shading, 
shading from trees affects local climate. Deciduous trees 
permit summer shading but lose their leaves in the winter 
peinnitting sunlight and heat to penetrate. Careful siting 
of development areas in relation to tall deciduous trees in 
dense groups can result in a natural season-adjusting shadina 
system providing protection in the summer months and exposure 
to sunlight in the winter months. The use of asohalt streets 
in hot climates (great heat absorption) should be avoided. 
The buildup of dark (heat absorbant) ground surface materials, 
particularly on the south and southwest sides of developments 



87 



that are close to structures and other areas occupied bv oeople , 
will raise the temperature of the immediate area. 

Wind has a decided effect on the temperature perceived 
by people. This is called "sensible" temperature. 'The human 
body is cooled by evaporation of perspiration, achieved by 
air movement and low air humidity. In v/arm weather, anythinci 
that reduces air movement or increases humidity will aive 
the impression of areater heat. The heat loss (coolina effect) 
of both people and buildings is affected by wind. 

High buildings impede hiqh winds and create wind-sheltered 
zones behind them. This wind protectina effect is maximized 
where there are tall, wide, thin buildinas located perpendic- 
ular to the direction of the wind, and where wind is permitted 
to penetrate the building mass at a few ooints to reduce tur- 
bulance in the air behind the structures. Such buildings mav 
be effectively used to create wind shelters for uses and other 
lower buildings located behind them. Thick clumps of trees 
can also provide wind protection, reducing wind velocity by 
as much as 50% where the clumps are of substantial size and 
consist of high trees. But it must be remembered that decidu- 
ous tree clumps will have little effect on winter winds as they 
lose their leaves, and that tree groups that are oval in shape 
provide little wind protection. Where either buildinas or 
tree clumps are used to create v/ind-protected zones, their 
protectina effect will generally be limited to an area behind 
these wind barriers that is not greater in depth than ten times 
the height of the barrier. 

Street systems should be oriented to admit summer breezes, 
particularly between noon and 6 P.M.., yet block winter winds 



88 



(if differences in summer-winter wind direction permit) . 
Wind carries sound, odor and dustlike solids. Industries, 
airports and other major noise producers should be located 
down wind from residential, commercial and office use areas, 
as should sewage disposal plants, stock yards, sanitary land- 
fills, industries that produce smoke or odor and producers o^ 
wind-carried solids such as concrete plants. 



89 



GEOLOGY 



General 



In many cases, insufficient data has been accumulated on 
subsurface conditions for proper site plannina. Subsurface 
explorations should be made in all areas of potential develop- 
ment where the preliminary study calls for the location of 
major structures. Such explorations mav indicate unsuitable 
subsurface conditions which would require large expenditures 
of money to accommodate planned structures. At times such 
studies may suggest alternate areas for locating such struc- 
tures and the original overall land plan mav be used and 
materially reduce construction costs. Field investiaations 
to determine surface and subsurface conditions at a site 
should be made as soon as possible. Often, considerable expense 
can be saved if explorations are made before a site is purchased 

Sources of Subsurface Information 

There are several sources that have information available 
on subsurface features. Thorough research is to be recommended 
because much useful information may be obtained at little cost 
and potentially produce areat savings in construction. The 
U.S. Geological Survey has prepared geologic quadrangle maos 
for many localities in the United States using the standard 
U.S.G.S. topographic maps as base maps upon which the various 
subsurface formations and structures have been superimposed. 
These maps are not available for Alachua County. General 
information, however, is available through published reports 
of the Florida Geological Survey which may be obtained by 
writing to the Department of Natural Resources, Division of 
Geology, c/o P. O. Drawer 631, Tallahassee, Florida 32304. 
Data obtained from published U.S.G.S. Water Resource Bulletins 



90 



provide a great deal of information on subsurface conditions 
from logs of water wells constructed in all parts of the state. 
These records contain a wealth of information useful to planning, 
such as soil strata, groundwater elevations and location of 
bedrock. Quite often additional information of this nature 
may be obtained through local well drillers, the County Health 
Department, and the County Engineer. The U.S. Department of 
Agriculture, particularly the Soil Conservation Service, may 
also have valuable information of particular areas, and should 
be consulted. 

Site Investigation Methods 

There are numerous techniques available for site inves- 
tigations. They vary in cost from relatively inexpensive visual 
inspection to costly subsurface explorations and laboratory 
tests. The actual techniques employed and to what extent they 
are utilized depends upon the type of structures to be built, 
the cost of construction, the relative cost of an overly 
conservative design, findinas of the preliminary investigations, 
and sound engineering judgement based upon an evaluation of the 
consistency and validity of existing information. 

On-site visual inspection is an essential preliminary 
step to good site planning. A complete inspection should 
provide information on surface soils, surface water, slopes, 
accessibility for heavy equipment, existing structures, 
adjacent construction, and type and density of vegetation. 
It may also be possible to determine if there is a potential 
for underground utilities to cross the site. Geological 
surveys can provide much information on subsurface soil and 
rock conditions. The geological survey will identifv dis- 
tinctive landforms such as ancient shorelines, structure- 



91 



induced landf orms , terraces, and weathered remnants of rock 
formations. Based on such observations, a geoloaist can often 
deduce the nature of materials in various parts of the site and 
often identify locations of useful on-site natural :cesources . 
Although geological surveys are particularly useful prior to 
subsurface explorations, usually time and cost factors restrict 
such studies to large projects, such as dams, highways, and 
airports . 

Aerial surveys likewise may be quite costly and practical 
primarily for only large areas. They may be used to identify 
landf orms, drainage patterns, vegetation types, land uses, 
and soil and rock characteristics of an area. Such studies 
are unsuitable for heavily wooded or built-up areas. The 
availability of recent aerial photographs of good quality, 
however, may provide much of the desired information on 
existing land conditions for local areas with relatively 
little effort and cost, without the expense of a comnlete 
aerial survey and professional interrpretation. 

Several of the more common methods for ascertainina sub- 
surface soil and formation characteristics are briefly outlined 
below: 

1) Geophysical methods provide, bv various tvDes of 
remote sensing techniques, a areat deal of subsurface 
information without a large number of borings. They 
can map large areas faster and at less cost than 
methods involving borings alone. These methods relate 
electrical resistivity, shock waves or other induced 
stimuli to significant subsurface soil or rock 
characteristics . 

More conventional methods involve some type of physical 
subsurface measurement. 

2) Probing derives subsurface data from drivinq a rod 
or pipe into the ground and measuring penetration 
resistance . 

3) Augers provide data by actually drilling into the 
earth and brinaina up disturbed soil samples. 



4) Test pits permit visual examination of soils in place 
but are limited by expense and difficulties of exca- 
vation. 

5) Rotary drilling employs powered equipment to rotate 
a bit capable of reducing the most compact soil or 
rock formation into chips. 

All these methods have limitations of one kind or another, 
but each is useful for performina certain jobs where a par- 
ticular type of information is needed. Usually the preliminary 
site investigations and research may indicate what methods 
for additional data gathering should be employed and if such 
information is necessary. (Merritt, p. 7-12, 13.) 

Local Planning Considerations 

Three of the most costly subsurface conditions encountered 
durinq construction are high water tables, unstable soils and 
solid rock. Locations of such unfavorable subsurface conditions 
should be clearly established prior to master plan nreparation 
and a consideration of these conditions is necessarv for the 
establishment of land uses. 

Alachua County is varied enough in the subsurface to 
warrant a thorough search of available material prior to site 
planning. The western portion of the county is noted for its 
karst topography which is typified by a relatively flat lime- 
stone plain having numerous solution features with limestone 
bedrock relatively close to the surface. Many areas have 
only a surficial soil covering. Other areas because of soil 
type and characteristics of underlying formations exhibit high 
water tables, unstable soil conditions, and other features which 
make construction difficult, costly, and often prohibitive to 
certain types of development. Clearly, it is only qood plannina 
to ascertain subsurface suitability before actually beainnincr 
the site plan. 



93 



SOILS 



Definition 



Soils may be defined as all that earthy material lyincr 
above bedrock that, as a result of physical, chemical, and 
biological processes, has become a mixture of "fraamented and 
weathered rocks and minerals, organic matter, water, and air 
in greatly varying proportions usually having more or less 
distinct layers or horizons which have develoned under the 
influence of climate and living organisms." (Flawn, p. 4) 

Problems sometimes arise when the developer must evaluate 
reports by the geologist, the soil scientist, and the enaineer to 
whom the actual definition of soils may differ considerably. 
To the geologist, soil is what rock becomes through weather and 
encompasses all that material between the earth's surface and 
bedrock. The soil scientist may evaluate soil as that naturally 
occurring body of material at the earth's surface v/hich contains 
living matter and is capable of supportina nlant life. Such 
a definition usually assumes as a lower boundary the limit of 
common rooting depths of native plants. The engineer, who 
is generally concerned with the mechanics of soils, regards 
soil as all that loose or unconsolidated material which lies 
on hard rock. Thus, the geological definition is one of genetic 
origin: a product of ohvsical, chemical, and biological oroces- 
ses; the soil science definition is a descrintive biological 
tenet; the engineering definition is one that princioallv defines 
physical parameters. 

The planner is in the position of having to coordinate 
these types of reports and of makina beneficial use of them. 
Care, therefore, must be taken to adequately understand the 
source of any soils information. (Flav/n, p. 3-6.) 



94 



Influence of Soils on Development 

Although soil structure qreatly influences urban form and 
structure, it does not dictate these things. Soil structure 
simply places conditions on urban development. Soil structure 
qualities usually limit Dotential urban developments to use 
types that can be inexpensivelv accommodated on the soil until 
such time as the additional expenditures required for the oro- 
vision of technological devices to overcome the limitations of 
the soil can be economically justified bv the demand for more 
intensive use of the land. Foundation engineerina can compen- 
sate for soil inadequacies but only at a greater cost. The 
economic justification must be high to compensate for engineerincf 
design and special foundations necessary where soils are inadequate 
for the proposed uses. 

Soil Characteristics 

Of the many soil characteristics that can, upon measurement, 
yield valuable information on limitations and potentialities of 
development on the various varieties of soils, the characteristics 
described in the followina paragraphs are commonly used in sub- 
division, highway, and foundation engineering. Followina a pre- 
liminary site survey, the soils engineer can usuallv recommend 
those tests applicable to any particular area. 

Two of the characteristics that have a great influence 
on development are bearing capacity and shear ina strenath. The 
bearing capacity of a soil is the maximum weiaht per square foot, 
usually measured in thousands of pounds, that the soil can safelv 
carry. The bearing capacity of soils greatly influences the kinds 
of structures that can be most economically built on them. Since 
most soils are stratified in layers of varyina soil tvpes 



95 



and qualities, the limiting soil qualities are not those of 
the soils at the surface of the around, but those of the soils 
at or below the level of the foundation supoortinq a structure. 

The followinq outline describes by broad soil classification 
the general soil qualities of each cateaor^r in regard to its 
load bearing characteristics. 

General Soil Qualities 



Solid soils : includina rock, bedrock and hardpan are the 

most stable foundation materials and are 
capable of supporting the areatest weiaht. 
They are generally subject only to seismic 
movements . 

Coarse soils : (gravel and sand) are aenerallv stable foun- 
dation materials and are capable of 
supporting heavy loads. When free of 
silt and clay, they are pervious to 
moisture, well-drained and are little 
affected by moisture. 

Fine soils : (silt and clay) have considerably less 

load-carrying ability than coarse soils 
and are usually limited to a maximum load 
bearing capacity of two tons per square foot. 
As sand particles become finer and more 
uniform in grain size, they approach the 
characteristics of silt. Fine sand and silt 
have limited permeability and are unstable 
in water. They go "quick" when saturated, 
tending to flow with little resistance. 
Clay is plastic. It retains its form when 
wet and does not ao "quick"; when dry, it 
is often satisfactory for licjht structures. 
It is impervious to moisture and virtually 
impossible to drain. These are generalities, 
however, and exceptions to the above do exist 

Organic soils : tend to create voids by decay and the crea- 
tion of gases. They are highly unstable. 



96 



I — u 



Filled ground ; (relocated earth or garbage) is subject 

to shrinkage and uneven settlement due 
to uneven consolidation of material and 
is generally unsuitable for all types of 
structures. Garbage fill is also organic. 

(C & RP, 842) 

Shearing strength is defined as "the shear stress in a 
soil mass at failure or wnen continuous displacement occurs 
at a relatively constant stress." (Merritt, p. 1-9, 10.) 
Shearing strength tests are useful for determining structural 
strength characteristics of a soil type. Such measurements 
are usually made in a laboratory and measure a soil's resistance 
to lateral force under a normal load. Shearing strength often 
is an important factor in determining ultimate bearing capacity 
of a soil and the stability of embankments. It varies witn 
type of soil, depth, and structural disturbance. It also varies 
with seasonal changes in groundwater level, moisture content, 
and seepage . 

Other types of soil characteristics include permeability 
and consistency. The degree of permeability (which is the 
ability of a soil to conduct water under a hydraulic gradient) 
depends on soil density, degree of saturation, particle size, 
and effective porosity. Moisture, or water content of a soil, is 
an important influence in soil behavior. 

Consistency generally describes the condition of fine 
grained soils and is measured by the Atterberg System which 
recognizes four states or conditions: liquid, plastic, semisolid, 
and solid. These conditions change with varying moisture content 
of soils. Although the Atterberg System is used primarily with 
soils that are to be compacted, the tests do yield some generally 
useful data on characteristics of fine grained soils. 



97 



Effects of Soil Structure on Site Locations 

In addition to placing limits of the location of sites 
for the most economical construction, soil structure also greatly 
influences the location and form of septic tank-served dev- 
elopments, widths of roads and railroad rights-of-way in areas 
requiring cut and fill, and the location of extractive industries, 
such as gravel and sand borrow pits and mining operations. 

When septic tanks can be placed in soils with good ab- 
sorptive capacity, they provide a suitable means for sewage 
disposal for low density housing. The successful operation of 
septic tanks depends upon soil permeability and the absence 
of groundwater near the earth's surface. 

In areas requiring cut and fill for roads or railroads, 
the angle of repose of soils in which the cut is made, and of 
the soils of which a fill is created, can not be exceeded. 
Areas of cut and fill must be within the right-of-way limits. 
The greater the angle of repose of the soil, the less right- 
of-way width will be needed to keep the finished slope of cut 
and fill areas within right-of-way limits. Soils with a very 
small angle of repose require wide right-of-way widths to 
keep slopes of cut and fill areas within the right-of-way. 

Areas of clean sand, gravel, and sand and gravel mixtures 
that are near the surface of the ground will tend to be used 
as resource sites through excavation, provided that the water 
table at these areas is sufficiently low to permit excavation 
of a vast mass of these materials without undue flooding. 
Such potential resource sites are particularly prone to develop- 
ment if they are located a short distance from an urban area 
and in close proximity to a major road. 



98 



In addition to having an adequate soil bearing capacity, 
it is essential that sites for extensive norizontal structures 
have a uniform soil quality throughout the area tne structure 
is to occupy. Cracks in structures, and structural failure, 
usually result from uneven settlement rather tnan from the 
sinking of tne Duilding. 

Soil Surveys 

The basic sources for soil structure data are: the State 
Department of Natural Resources; the U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, Soil Conservation Service; and the Florida Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Soil and Water 
Conservation Service. In addition, other pertinent data is 
uaually available from tne University of Florida, Department of 
Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station, and the Depart- 
ment of Geology. The offices of city and county engineers 
often maintain detailed data files on local soil conditions. 

Although originally intended to aid the farmer in 
selecting land best suited to various agricultural needs, 
present day soil surveys now include a great deal more infor- 
mation and are of use to planners and engineers, as well as 
developers, homeowners and local governments, to aid in deter- 
mining the best use of the land. 

A soil survey includes determining which properties of 
soils are important, organizing knowledge about the relations 
of soil properties and soil use, classifying soils into clearly 
defined units, locating and plotting the boundaries of the 
units or maps, and preparing and publishing the maps and re- 
ports. 

The Soil and Water Conservation Service upgraded the orig- 
inal (1940) agriculturally-oriented soil survey in 1954, and 



99 



included in their report a general soil map of Alachua County 
at a scale of one-inch to four miles. Comprehensive Plan Report 
No. 1 by the Gainesville Department of Community Development 
entitled Physiographic Survey includes a brief description 
of the various soil series that occur in the Gainesville 
area and evaluates their suitability for various types of 
urban development. Further information of this type is to 
be found on the Soil Survey Interpretation Sheets compiled by 
the Soil and Water Conservation Service. These sheets contain 
for each soil type a description of: 

1) estimated physical and chemical properties; 

2) suitability and major features affecting soil as 
a resource material; 

3) degree of limitations and major soil features affect- 
ing selected use; 

4) degree of soil limitations and major features affect- 
ing recreational development; 

5) capability, soil loss factors, and potential yields 
of some agricultural products; 

6) woodland suitability; and 

7) wildlife suitability. 

An example data sheet for one soil type is included in Figure 
4. This data is as yet unpublished but available upon request 
for most soil types from the local Soil and Water Conservation 
Service office. 

Engineering soil survey information for Alachua County 
may also be found in Technical Report No. 1, Mav , 1952, by 
the Civil Engineering Department, Engineering and Industrial 
Experiment Station of the University of Florida in cooper- 
ation with the State Road Department of Florida. This report 
provides an evaluation of the engineering parameters for each 
soil type and a map of Alachua County illustrating the distrib- 
ution for each soil. 



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101 



DRAINAGE 



General 



That portion of precipitation that is neither absorbed 
by the soil nor transpired by plants and trees or returned to 
the atmosphere by evaporation is called "run-off" . Run-off 
collects by "sheet flow" where the direction of flow corres- 
ponds to lines perpendicular to contours and is tnereby direc- 
ted by local topography into streams and rivers. 

Run-off tends to follow the easiest route to the lowest 
level of the surrounding land. Run-off creates its own most 
efficient drainage pattern--the natural stream flow pattern. 
It can be accommodated in underground storm sewers that do not 
follow the natural surface drainage patterns, but if the 
natural surface drainage pattern is utilized as the basis for 
urban development, tne need for expensive underground storm 
sewers will be minimized. 

Because of the relatively high cost of drainage facilities, 
it is mandatory that careful consideration be given to run-off 
controls both prior to and during actual development of an area. 
Inadequate storm drainage systems may cause flooding and damage 
to private property along with associated problems of siltation 
and erosion. It may also be the cause of expensive legal pro- 
ceedings if such planning is neglected. 

The cost of providing drainage facilities is frequently one 
of the largest single costs in the orderly development of an 
area. The land use selected for eacn section directly affects 
the drainage cost. In many instances where one use of the land 
could not economically justify construction of a storm sewer 
system, such as in single-family residential areas, a different 
use, such as industrial or commercial development, could easily 
support the costly construction of a closed storm system. 



102 



Assignments of major land uses should ideally consider 
preliminary run-off quantity calculations and general align- 
ment of major drainage facilities. Other items affecting the 
cost of development of any land area should also be evaluated 
in relation to drainage requirements at the preliminary design 
state. 

Natural stream channels usually provide the most economic 
means for collecting and transporting run-off to points of 
disposal. The actual volume of water to be transported, however, 
is the primary consideration when choosing between a closed 
storm sewer and an open channel. 

The Storm Drainage System 

The storm drainage system is similar to sanitary sewers in 
that both are gravity systems. They are commonly linear-branched 
systems, having a continuous downgrade from the highest point in 
the system to the lowest point in the system, the outfall, where 
the trunk of the system empties into a natural channel. 

Storm drainage systems usually consist of four components: 
drainage ditcnes, street gutters, storm sewers, (underground 
pipes to carry run-off) and natural channels. In these systems, 
storm run-off flows from buildings and surrounding property to 
either storm sewers, street gutters or drainage channels in the 
street right-of-way by means of drain pipes or surface flow. The 
storm drainage system combines this water with run-off from ground 
surfaces and street paving and conducts it to an outfall which 
empties into a natural drainage channel. Storm sewers should 
only be provided where natural channels: cannot handle run-off 
without undue economic investment, where the location of open 
channels constitutes a public safety hazard, or if the economic 
advantage of intensified land use warrants underground conduits. 



103 



street gutters should not be made to carry run-off further 
than approximately 800 feet before dumping it into an open 
channel or storm sewer inlets. The underground conduit system 
is designed much the same as the sanitary sewer system. 

Drainage Planning Considerations 

With regard to run-off quantity, the total amount of rain 
that falls is not as important as the intensity of fall. A 
light rain over a long period of time will not result in as 
much run-off as a short intense rain, as it quickly saturates 
the ground. In planning design, drainage channels are desig- 
ned to accommodate the amount of run-off generated by the most 
intense rainfall, expressed in inches per hour, that can be 
expected every 5, 10, 25, 50, or 100 years. The most intense 
rainfall expected at these frequencies is often expressed in 
terms of the hourly equivalent of the maximum 2 0-minute storm as 
well as in terms of the maximum rainfall per hour. 

Due to their great cost, storm sewer systems are often 
designed for 10 to 25 year intensity storms; the expense of 
providing for the 100-year storm is ordinarily too great for a 
community to afford. Because of this, one of the primary pur- 
poses of ground drainage design (precluding the disasterous effects 
of the uncommon storm) is defeated. The primary aim of surface 
drainage design is to keep the run-off from uncommon storms 
moving at a reasonably slow speed (to prevent erosion and 
maximize absorption) within established channels set aside for 
this purpose. The natural surface channels are most rationally 
the backbone of such a system and as such should become a part 
of the basic structure of the community, influencing the loca- 
tion and qualities of all other land uses. 

Streets should be designed as components of a comprehensive, 
integrated drainage system. They generally are located a few 



104 



inches below the level of the surrounding ground and, therefore, 
collect sheet run-off from surrounding areas. In addition, these 
paved areas absorb very little of the precipitation that falls 
on them. 

Streets often account for one-third to one-sixth of the 
total urban area. Street construction significantly alters 
run-off. The great amount of water that runs off tneir surfaces 
must be safely carried along their rights-of-way to safe outlet. 
Because of this, dips along streets and downhill cul-de-sac 
conditions should be avoided as they necessitate drainage 
easements or the purchase of ground to permit them to be 
drained. All streets should have a minimum running grade of .5% 
to assure the continuous movement of run-off along their sur- 
faces, and a cross-slope of at least 2% to permit sheet flow to 
be collected at the sides of the roads, in ditches or gutters. 

Impervious soils, such as clay and silt, result in a great 
amount of run-off as little water is absorbed by these soils. 
Sand and gravel, on the other hand, absorb great amounts of 
water resulting in little run-off. The conversion of a site 
from an agricultural land use, or a natural vegetation cover, 
to urban development often results in great changes in run-off 
quantity due to decreased ground absorption. Paved streets, 
buildings, parking lots, etc., are quite impervious to infiltra- 
tion, therefore, most urban developments have a high "run-off 
coefficient" . The run-off coefficient for a parcel of land 
is an expression of the amount of water falling on the surface 
that will not be absorbed. A development that will not absorb 
90% of the water that falls on it has a "run-off coefficient" 
of .90. A "run-off coefficient" of .32 means that 32% of the 
water that falls on the area will be run-off. Soil types and 
land development variations result in variations in surface 
permeability which, in turn, result in variation in the 
quantity of run-off. 



105 



The greater the ground slope, the greater tne run-off. 
In general, areas witn slopes of from 10-30% have approximately 
20% greater run-off than areas with slopes of from 0-9% grade, 
all other determinants of run-off quantity being equal. Areas 
of steep slope have increased run-off because the water is 
moving across the surface of the land too rapidly to be absorbed 
by the soil. Areas of no slope (0-1%) have ground drainage 
problems for the opposite reason; because there is no chance 
for the water to move, the soil is rapidly saturated resulting 
in standing pools . The optimum topographic condition for 
ground drainage is gently rolling hills wnich permit water to 
move slowly but continuously over the surface of the ground, 
thereby maximizing absorption potential wnile minimizing the 
possibility of surface erosion. 

In general, therefore, if a proposed development or build- 
ing is to be located on a long slope or hill, careful considera- 
tion should be given to constructing an earthen berm or other 
water diversion to direct water around the structure. The 
feasibility of constructing buildings on surrounding lands having 
slopes greater than 8% should probably be given careful engin- 
eering consideration to possible problems concerning erosion 
control, earth slides, drainage, vegetative cover, and special 
foundations or subsurface drainage systems to reduce possibility 
of economic losses. 

Vegetation retards the flow of water over the surface 
of the ground, thereby increasing tne potential for absorp- 
tion, and making the ground more absorbent by opening up the 
soil through root growth. The heavier tne vegetation, the 
lower the run-off coefficient, all other determinants of run-off 
quantity being equal. 

Poorly drained areas will often control growth in such 
a manner as to leave them basically undeveloped until such time 



106 



as the economic demand for their intensive use is sufficient to 
absorb the increased cost of rectifying their defects through 
the application of drainage engineering technology. But, in the 
mean time, due to tneir low desirability, they tend to attract 
marginal developments requiring little construction, such as 
junk yards, storage yards, etc. This development usually leaves 
a social stigma of undesirability on the area long after the 
drainage condition is rectified. 

Flood plain areas on the other hand present an opposite 
picture. Because of their relatively flat nature, the possibility 
of easy travel routes, and the accessibility to water supplies 
and sewage disposal areas, flood plains present an attractive 
site for development. 

In brief, however, the problems of establishing permanent 
structures in relatively infrequently used natural drainage 
areas (flood plains) have much economic loss potential and 
should be carefully considered prior to land development. 
Potential land uses for such areas may be suggested in local 
flood control ordinances as well as in publications by the 
U.S. Water Resources Council. 



107 



Water & Sewer Utilities 



GENERAL 



The availability of an adequate water supply and a sanitary 
means of domestic and industrial waste disposal are two of tne 
primary controlling considerations in development site planning. 
Until it can be well established that an acceptable water supply 
is available, or being planned at an economically feasible 
distance, and that provision has been made for the disposal of 
wastewater treatment effluents, major planning efforts siiould 
be delayed. 

WATER SUPPLY 

Influence of Water Supply on Development 

The following six basic tenents define the overall influence 
of water supply on development. 

1) Where a source of water supply does not exist, 
development will not occur. Where supply is 
limited, the degree of development will be limited 
to that population which the water supply can ade- 
quately serve. 

2) Water quality can restrict development, particularly 
where sources are so polluted as to make them unpal- 
atable, or if treatment is possible only at exorbi- 
tant expenditures. Such pollution may be natural or 
man-made . 

3) Water trunks, mains and branches must be located 
well below the surface of tne ground. If bedrock 
exists near the surface of tne ground, tne cost of 
excavation may be so great as to preclude water 
service or delay it until the demand for the use of 
the land is sufficient to justify tne increased costs. 

4) The available water pressure at house branches will 
limit the development of sites. If pressure is 
adequate to serve only two floors of housing, build- 
ings higher tnan two stories will not be constructed 
unless tnere is economic justification for installing 
auxiliary pumps and storage. 



108 



5) Areas that are not served by a central water system 
must be served by individual wells. Groundwater 
sources may be so meager as to make individual well 
service impossible, resulting in non-development. 
Groundwater supplies are generally plentiful and of 
acceptable quality in this area of Florida. 

6) Where not only individual wells but also individual 
sewerage systems (septic tanks and leeching fields) 
are necessary, only large lot, low density develop- 
ment will occur due to tne need to physically separate 
septic fields and well heads for the prevention of 
contamination. Natural slopes are also required in 
such instances. 

(C & RP 842) 

Alternate Water Systems 

To accomplish these ends, water service for a subdivision can 
be provided in many different ways. The method most preferred 
is the extension of existing water and sewer lines. If the 
development is not located within an existing service district, 
water and other facilities may become available through annex- 
ation by a local municipality. Another alternative is the for- 
mation of an improvement district or utility corporation where 
existing laws allow. Where a regional or county service district 
or authority exists, such as the Gainesville-Alachua County 
Regional Electric, Water and Sewer Utility Board, the authority 
becomes the controlling agency. If a public water or sewer 
system is not available, the developer has the option of devel- 
oping his own utility system, including collection, distribution, 
and treatment systems. 

The two major categories of water supply are groundwater 
and surface water. Two sources of supply of relatively minor 
importance are rainwater and demineralized water. Groundwater 
supplies include dug, bored, driven and drilled wells, springs, 
and infiltration galleries. Surface water supplies include 
lakes, streams, reservoirs, ponds, swamps, and rivers. 



109 



In general, when it is necessary to develop a central water 
system to serve a subdivision, primary consideration should 
first be given to a groundwater supply. Groundwater sources are 
generally superior to surface water supplies in tnat tney are 
usually biologically pure, fairly constant in qua'lity, quantity 
and temperature, and often nave less turbidity and color tnan 
surface waters. Simple chlorination treatment will normally 
provide an adequate safety factor for such supplies . 

Tne location and utilization of groundwater supplies snould 
take into consideration the recharge area, possible sources of 
pollution, well construction practices and standards actually 
followed, and engineering evaluation of safe yield and well 
field design. 

Surface water supplies by their very nature are all subject 
to intermittent pollution and almost invariably must oe treated 
to insure tneir safety. The extent of required treatment of any 
water supply will necessarily depend upon the findings of a sanitary 
survey Dy a competent sanitary engineer. The minimum treatment 
required may be simple chlorination, or a more tnorough treatment 
process involving coagulation, sedementation , filtration and chlorina- 
tion to improve water quality. Wnere a surface supply must be 
relied upon, a reservoir or lake witn good water management policies 
and control tnat does not receive domestic or industrial sewage is 
preferable to a stream or river. 

The Water Supply System 

Tne water supply system differs from tne gravity systems 
of storm and sanitary sewers in tnat tne water supply piping 
system is a pressurized system. Because of tnis , tne location 
of tne water supply pipes is not dependent on terrain and 
should not be a linear-branciied system. Tne water supply pip- 
ing system serving a residential area snould be a grid or looped 
system. Sucn systems minimize tne potential for tne freezing of 



110 



water in deadend water lines, reduce tne pressure drop at end- 
of-the-line locations during periods of nigh water demand, and 
permit sections of water pipe to be cut out of service for 
repair purposes, or the addition of taps to tne line, without 
disruption water service to tne users beyond. 

In general tnen, it may be stated tnat any public water 
supply, to adequately serve its demands, must have a distrib- 
ution system of sufficient capacity to meet maximum demands of 
projected maximum daily flows plus an added fire flow capacity. 
There snould be a provision for stage expansions, and tne system 
snould be able to maintain a minimum pressure of 4 pounds per 
square inch everywhere witnin the service area. Tne system snould 
have sufficient quantity for projected growtn plus a reserve for 
dry periods. In addition, water quality must meet witn U.S. 
Public Health Standards. 

Water Supply Planning Considerations 

There are many situations where there is no practical 
alternative to tne use of streams for water supply. In such 
cases, carefully designed water treatment plants snould be 
provided. Tne quantity of water upon wnich to base the design 
of a water system should be determined during tne preliminary 
design stage of the development. Population projections are the 
basic considerations when estimating future water demand; however, 
social, economic, and land use factors, all of which can be ex- 
pected to cnange with time, should be considered. For general 
estimating purposes the average community requires approximately 
150 gallons of water per day per person. However, tne actual 
distribution system must be designed to deliver adequate water 
to meet peak hourly demands, whicn in small communities and 
subdivisions may reach 500 to 1000 percent of the average daily 
consumption, and a fire flow demand capacity wnich may even 



111 



exceed peak nourly demand in smaller communities. Tne total 
quantity of water used for fire fighting is normally quite small, 
but tne demand rate is hign. Wide individual variations exist 
for water supply requirements. It is, tneref ore , necessary to 
employ a competent sanitary engineer to consider all design 
requirements during tne planning and design stages of 
development. 

Several of the more important factors tnat influence water 
demand include climate, degree of industrialization, type of 
service, lawn sprinkling, air conditioning, cost, water pressure 
and quality. Lawn sprinkling and air conditioning nave been an 
increasingly important cause for rising per capita use of water 
in Florida. 

In tne selection of a source of water, tne various factors 
to be considered are adequacy and reliaioility , cost, quality, 
politics and legal implications. Of tnese, cost is probably the 
most important because witn modern tecnniques almost any source 
could be utilized if consumers were willing to accept tne price. 
In some local areas, such as certain areas in coastal Florida, 
existing demands exceed the capacity of supplies and increasing 
attention nas been directed toward desalinization and reclamation 
of wastewater. 

Adequacy of supply requires tnat tne source capacity should 
be large enough to satisfy tne entire water demand. However, 
total dependence on a single source is not always desirable, and 
in some cases, diversification is essential for reliability. 
The source must also be adequate for meeting tne demands during 
power failures and natural or man-made disasters. 

A political problem with water supply sometimes exists 
because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage 
boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water- 



112 



importation plans; but it even exists in varying forms for waste- 
water reclamation and desalination projects. Legal advice shoula 
be sought prior to any large scale water usages. 

Wastewater reclamation for human consumption is not yet 
an acceptaDle alternative as determined by the United States 
Public Healtn Service. Hindered by public opinion and uncertainty 
over the persistence of viruses, such reuse is, for the most part, 
currently limited to irrigation and other miscellaneous uses 
where human contact and consumption is circumvented. 

SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS 

Influence of Sanitary Sewer Systems on Development 

Like water supply, the presence or absence of an adequate 
means of sanitary sewage disposal has a major influence upon 
the type and degree of development in an area. 

There are six limiting influences of major effect tnat 
generally define the impact of sanitary sewer systems. 

1) Where a natural drainage channel with contin- 
uous stream flow does not exist and soils are 
primarily not permeable, the disposal of treated 
effluent is a serious problem. Most treatment 
facilities depend heavily on dilution of the 
discharged effluent in stream flow of a natural 
cnannel, or on the absorption of tne effluent into 
the ground. Where neither of these methods is prac- 
tical, a higher degree of waste treatment will be 
necessary and a more elaborate means of effluent 
disposal required. This involves an expense that 
can seldom be accepted by smaller communities and 
may preclude additional development. 

2) Tne location of the treatment plant and point of 
discharge has a great effect on development 
form. Since the sewer system is a gravity system, 
only areas above the level of the treatment 
facility can be served. Because the discharged 



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effluent is not 100% pure or safe, treatment facil- 
ities and discharge points must be located down- 
stream or downslope from the areas which they serve, 
minimizing the influence of potentially polluted 
stream flow on developed areas. Treatment plants 
are also commonly odor creators, and their location, 
relative to prevailing winds and residential and 
commercial areas, is an important planning consider- 
ation . 

3) Sewer lines must be laid separate from water lines 
and no sewer invert (inside bottom of pipe) shoula 
be less than four feet beneath the finished street 
grade . 

4) Sewer service depends on a constant downhill slope. 
Therefore, not only areas below the level of treat- 
ment facility will be denied service but also those 
areas so far from the facility that a reasonable 
sloped sewer cannot be provided, except when it is 
economically justifiable to pump sewage to higher 
elevations by the use of lift stations or to trans- 
port it under pressure by pumping. 

5) Areas that cannot be served by a central sewer system 
must be served by individual septic tank systems or 
by small satellite sewer plants. Such small plants 
can economically serve 75 to 500 dwelling units and 
must meet all the requirements of a central system. 
Where these requirements cannot be met and the slope/ 
soil characteristics of an area are not acceptable 
for septic tank performance, the area will not be 
developed . 

6) Although an area may be served by sewer lines, it 
may be strongly inhibited in its development 

by the capacity of the sewer pipes which have been 
provided. Particular uses may be precluded on 
particular sites by inadequate sewer lines. 

(C & RP 8 4 2) 

The Sanitary Sewage Collection System 

The central sewerage system for a residential area consists 
of straight sanitary sewer pipe sections connected by manholes 
at every change of horizontal and/or vertical direction. The 
pipes must have a continuous downgrade from the highest point 
on the pipe system to the point at which it empties into a 



114 



sewer at the fringe of the residential area leading to the 
treatment plant. The sanitary sewerage system is usually a 
branching system where the smallest branches are attached to 
house sewer lines that carry sewage from residential fixtures 
into the sanitary sewer lines. 

Each dwelling unit in a residential development to be 
served by a central sewer system must nave a direct connec- 
tion with a sanitary sewer located either in the public street 
right-of-way or on a private land in an easement. For general 
planning purposes, it can reasonably be assumed that house 
sewers will be six inches in diameter, and all others will be 
a minimum of eight inches in diameter. Sanitary sewer pipes 
must be laid with their invert elevations at least four feet 
below the surface of the ground or lower where basement fix- 
tures are to drain into them. Manholes must be provided, at 
least at 400-foot intervals, along sanitary sewer lines. The 
minimum slope of a sanitary sewer is .4% for the first 1,600 
feet upgrade of a controlling sewer and a .3% grade below. 
Sanitary sewer pipes are usually only constructed of vitrified 
clay in Florida. 

Alternate Sanitary Sewerage Systems 

Where a public system is not available, the design of a 
central sewerage system including a treatment plant should be 
given careful consideration. 

Where such a central sewerage system is located, lots can 
be made smaller than if a septic tank and well were installed 
on each lot. The cost of sewers per dwelling can be reduced 
if a central system is installed at the onset of construction. 
In addition to producing more lots, tne installation of such a 
system makes the property more desirable, a better investment, 



115 



and less likely to cause a public Health nuisance than poten- 
tially troublesome septic tank systems. 

Various treatment methods are available by wnich wastes 
from a subdivision may be treated. The actual method employed 
will depend upon the number of persons to be served, the 
degree of treatment required, the type of supervision provided, 
and other qualifying criteria. For the small development of 
up to 50 homes, the package type extended aeration plant nas 
been found practical and has been increasingly utilized in 
recent years. This system employs the principle of continuous 
aeration for periods up to and exceeding 24 hours for all 
wastes to accomplisn biologic degradation of the incoming 
organic matter. For housing developments up to about 300 
homes, other types of package treatment plants employing the 
basic activated sludge process of organic degradation by aer- 
ation are supplanting the older Imhoff tank and sand filter 
methods. (Larger subdivisions usually construct more perman- 
ent treatment plants that utilize some modification of the basic 
activated sludge-type plant.) All wastewater plant effluents 
are presently required to have chlorination for disinfection 
purposes prior to final disposal. 

Planning Considerations for Domestic Wastewater Disposal 

In rural areas remote from population centers and their 
accompanying public water and sewer services, individual well 
water and septic tank sewage disposal systems offer the only 
practical answer for at least the immediate future. Like 
public facilities, for individual systems to be acceptable, 
they must be carefully designed, constructed, and maintained 
in accordance with good standards. In areas where tne soil is 
unsuitable for disposal by the conventional septic tank systems, 
every effort should be made to prevent the subdivision of land 
until a public sewer system can be made available. In addition, 



116 



the development of private residential sewer and water systems 
should not be permitted in areas where there is a high proba- 
bility of extensive urban development at locations beyond the 
area being subdivided, unless the residential street system and 
lot pattern are designed to permit the resubdivision of the area 
after central, public utilities are extended through the area 
to serve the developments beyond. Private, individual water 
and utility provisions usually require large residential lots 
which become unnecessary and expensive when central, public 
utility systems are extended to serve these sites. 

The following points illustrate the general system 
requirements corresponding with the various possible combin- 
ations of available public services on the density of develop- 
ment. 

1) Private, individual sewer: central, public water . 
Where individual sewer systems are developed, 
"septic" tank systems serving each residence 

on its own site, and where public water supply 
is provided to residential sites, net residential 
density usually can be no greater than 4DU 
(density units) /acre. This condition results from 
the need for at least 50 feet between any part 
of the septic tank system and any dwelling unit on 
the same property or on adjacent property. 

2) Private, individual sewer; private, individual water . 
Where both sewer and water systems are provided 
on-site for each dwelling unit via septic tanks 

and wells, net residential density can be no 

greater than 2 DU/acre , and may have to be much 

lower. This condition results from the need for 

at least 50 feet between any part of the septic tank/ 

septic field system and any dwelling unit, in 

combination with the need for at least 100 feet 

between any part of the septic system and the 

nearest well. But, where sandy soils exist 

this distance should be increased to 250 feet. In 

addition, the wells on each site must be uphill 

from the septic system on the site. 

3) Central, public sewer: private, individual water . 
Where sewer service is provided to dwelling units 
by way of a central sewer system, but water is pro- 
vided at each dwelling unit by individual wells. 



117 



there are no more limitations on residential develop- 
ment than there are when both water and sewer are 
under a central, public operation. 

(C & RP 842) 



The determination of service areas should be based upon 
population density and topography, A comparison of the 
map of tne subdivision to be served with the topographic maps 
used in drainage analysis and a soil map v/ill be helpful in 
determining : 

1) the most logical service areas and sites for 
locating treatment plants; and 

2) areas which, because of poor soil conditions, are 
in most need of public sewerage. 

When designing a sewerage system for an area, adequate 
master planning should go a long way towards reducing long- 
range problems. It is not very practical or efficient to 
allow or provide for a number of small treatment plants each 
designed to serve only its immediate area. This practice 
indicates a lack of coordinated planning and is quite often 
considerably more expensive than the construction and 
operation of a few large waste treatment facilities each 
designed to serve a major drainage area. 

It is essential that every planned sewerage system have 
a built-in flexibility which provides for future expansions. 
This can be accomplished by designing sewer pipes to accom- 
modate both present and future needs and by designing the treat- 
ment plant to allow the additional treatment units to be added 
as required in future years. It is common engineering prac- ' 
tice to design pipes for a period of 40 to 50 years, treatment 
plants for 15 to 25 years, at a per capita flow of 100 g.p.d. 
plus major industrial wastes, and certain trunk sewers for the 
life of the system. 



118 



As is provided for in tne sub-division regulations for 
Alachua County, mandatory connection to the central sewer 
system should be required as soon as the system is available 
to potential customers. This allows for better system plan- 
ning and insures customers to meet the economic requirements 
of constructing and maintaining the system. At the time such 
provisions are made, a definite distance requirement should 
be established to determine connection responsibility and/or 
a time factor may be designated limiting the time within which 
a building must be connected to the public sewer system. 
Other arrangements are possible, and having one such require- 
ment is highly desirable. 

LOCATION OF UTILITY LINES 

Sanitary sewers are generally located along road center- 
lines. This location positions the pipe equidistant from 
building lines on either side of the street facilitating 
house connections and prevents the incidence of root damage 
occuring to pipes if they are located in planting strips next 
to pavements. Water lines may be located under the street 
pavement or alongside the road under the sidewalk or planting 
strip, but they should be located at least ten feet from the 
nearest sewer or gas main and above the highest sewer or gas 
lines. Storm sewer pipes are usually located on the opposite 
side of the road from water lines. (Chiara and Koppleman, p. 294) 



119 



APPENDIX A 
METHODOLOGY FOR PROJECTING HOUSING NEEDS 

All projections of housing needs are based on population 
projections for the respective areas, as reported in the Pop- 
ulation and Economic Study (N.C .F . R.P .C. , 1972). Trend data 
was employed when available with regard to population per house- 
hold and housing type and tenure. When such trend data was not 
available, rates and values were held constant at the 197 level 
as reported in the Census Summary Tape Printouts . Vacancv rates 
were held at the 1970 level except for the Gainesville Urban Area, 
where the average vacancy rate from 1950 to 1970 was computed and 
continued forward throughout the study period. 

As no trend data exists for the unincorporated areas of the 
county, data for these areas was held constant at the 1971-72 
level, as identified in the Housing Conditions Study (N.C .F . R.P .C . , 
1972) . 

The following procedure was used to arrive at housing needs 
figures : 

1) Total projected population multiplied by the percent 

of the population estimated not to be in group auarters 
yields the population residing in households 

2) Population residing in households divided by the estimated 
population per household yields the estimated number of 
occupied housing units 

3) The number of occupied housing units divided bv 100 minus 
the vacancy rate yields the projected total number of 
housing units needed 

Total housing unit figures were then subdivided by category 
by tyoe and tenure. Summing the totals by category for each 
study area resulted in the totals for Alachua County. 



120 



APPENDIX B 
METHODOLOGY FOR PROJECTING COSTS OF NEW HOUSING 

1. The price of a typical residential unit in Alachua County was 
provided by the Home Builders Association of Gainesville. The 
typical residential unit was described as a 3 bedroom house with 
approximately 1,200 square feet of living space, on a standard 
100' by 100' lot. 

2. A survey of builders indicates that lot prices will vary accord- 
ing to lot size, degree of development and geographic location 
the range may be from $3,000 for a lot with no accompanying paved 
streets, curbs or street drains, to as much as $12,000 for one- 
-third of an acre in a subdivision. For the purposes of this 
study a cost figure of $5,000 for a standard lot accompanying a 
typical residential unit will be used. This represents 20% of 
the total cost of the house. 

3. Data from the Home Builders Association indicate that land 
accompanying the typical residential unit in 1963 cost approx- 
imately $2,000. Using this as a base figure, calculating the 
per cent increase from 1963 to 1973 and projecting this forward 
to 1985, estimates of land prices were determined for 1975, 1980 
and 198 5. 

4. Maintaining the distribution of housing costs alluded to earlier, 
dividing the estimated cost of land by .20 yields the estimated 
total sales price of a new house for each respective year. 

NOTE: Prices may vary according with the addition of household 
luxuries, size of lot, degree of lot development, square 
footage of house and geographic location. 



121 



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122 



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